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Section_6_Alcohols_and_Ethers_post

Section_6_Alcohols_and_Ethers_post - Alcohols Order the...

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Sec. 6: Alcohols, Ethers 1 Alcohols Order the following compounds from most to least acidic? A) 1 > 2 > 3 B) 3 > 2 > 1 C) 2 > 1 > 3 D) 3 > 1 > 2 E) 1 > 3 > 2 Which of the following equilibriums would not be shifted to the right? OH A) CH 3 O O CH 3 OH B) OH 2 CH 3 O C) + + + O CH 3 OH OH CH 3 O + OH CH 3 OH + + Text-A&E-1 Text-A&E-2
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Sec. 6: Alcohols, Ethers 2 Alcohols may be weakly basic as well as being acidic: molecules that can be both acidic and basic are called amphoteric R OH 2 R OH R O Alkoxonium ion Alcohol Alkoxide ion Strong Acid Strong Base Weak acid and base strong acid mild base strong base mild acid Very strong acids are required to protonate alcohols.
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Sec. 6: Alcohols, Ethers 3 Preparation of Alcohols A) S N 1 B) S N 2 HMPA – hexanamethylphosphoric triamide (H 3 C) 2 N P O N(CH 3 ) 2 (H 3 C) 2 N Text-A&E-3
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Oxidation States of Carbon A reaction of an organic molecule usually corresponds to increasing its hydrogen content or decreasing its oxygen content: RCH 3 [O] [H] RCH 2 OH [O] [H] R C O H [O] [H] R C O OH Lowest Oxidation State Highest Oxidation State R CH R OH R C R O [O] [H] Oxidation (broad definition): a reaction that increases its content of any element more electronegative than carbon CH 3 [O] [H] CH 2 Cl How do you figure out the oxidation state of a carbon atom? a bond to hydrogen or anything less electronegative than carbon is electron donating -1 a bond to nitrogen, oxygen or anything more electronegative than carbon is electron withdrawing +1 a bond to a carbon 0 C H H H H OS = 4 x -1 = - 4 C O O OS = 4 x +1 = + 4 C H H H C H OH H OS = (3 x -1) + 0 = - 3 OS = Hydrogen - (2 x -1) Oxygen - (1 x 1) Carbon - 0 = - 1 OS = oxidation state
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