bully - From"Bullies in School by Kathleen Berger I...

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From "Bullies in School" by Kathleen Berger I [ . . .] Researchers define bullying as repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm on a particular child through physical attack (such as hitting, punching, pinching, or kicking), verbal attack (such as teasing, taunting, or name-calling), or social attack (such as deliberate social exclusion or public mocking). Implicit in this definition is the idea of an unbalance of power: victims of bullying are in some way weaker than their harassers and continue to be singled out for attack, in part because they have difficulty defending themselves. In many cases, this difficulty is compounded by the fact that the bullying is being carried out by a group of children. In Olweus's research, at least 60 percent of bullying incidents involved group attacks. As indicated by the emphasis given to it, the key word in the preceding definition of bullying is "repeated." Most children experience isolated attacks or social slights from other children and come through them unscathed. But when a child must endure such shameful experiences again and again-being forced to hand over lunch money, or to drink milk mixed with detergent, or to lick someone' s boots, or to be the butt of insults and practical jokes, with everyone watching and no one coming to the child's defense-the effects can be deep and long-lasting. Not only are bullied children anxious, depressed, and underachieving during the months and years of their torment, but even years later, they have lower self-esteem as well as painful memories. The picture is somewhat different, but often more ominous, for bullies. Contrary to the public perception that bullies are actually insecure and lonely, at the peak of their bullying they usually have friends who abet, fear, and admire them, and they seem brashly unapologetic about the pain they have inflicted, as they claim, "all in fun." But their popularity and school success fade over the years, and especially if they are boys. they run a high risk of ending up in prison. In one longitudinal study done by Olweus, by age 24,
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