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070129 C&L - Question Sheet 1 - Chapter 1

070129 C&L - Question Sheet 1 - Chapter 1 - 1 830:311H...

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1 830:311H CONDITIONING AND LEARNING Chapter 1 Study Sheet Identification/Definition (see also the list at the end of chapter 1) : Aristotle Galileo Descartes – reflex action; automatic connection b/w stimulus & response Tolman – operational behaviorism; accepts unobservable events to explain behavior (“thirst”) by way of an intervening variable (theoretical construct), so long as the relationship is testable and falsifiable, anchored in empirical world of S&R. Must have operational definition. Locke – empiricism as the associations formed b/w ideas (tabula rasa); accumulation of atomistic sense impressions. Skinner – radical behaviorism; emphasizes focus on empirical correlation b/w S and R; behavior is lawfully related to environment; unlike in classical conditioning, he notes behavior is subject to operant- respondent distinction because it can either be elicited by antecedent stimulus or emitted for consequential stimulus. Skinner box = short ITI Thorndike – early comparative psychologist who observed operant conditioning using cat in puzzle box; proposed law of effect, stating that a satisfying response strengthens S&R connection and annoying response weakens it law of parsimony (Morgan's canon) – simplest explanation of behavior is better than most complex one British empiricists – Locke & Hume; Hume emphasized the importance of associations between ideas obtained through empiricism; he argued that contiguity between ideas is necessary to form associations (temporal proximity, similarity, intensity, recency, rumination). Dualism & mind/body problem nativism (rationalism) vs. empiricism – the mind is not an entirely blank slate, it is instead a blank slate with a certain preordained structure. Rat taste aversion is more intense than visual or auditory aversion after puke learning learning-performance distinction – learning may occur, but may not always be observed in testing. Learning may not always be indicated by behavior. hedonism – Hobbes’ notion of pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain as motivators for all actions association. Mind is entirely governed by physical laws. S-S* learning vs. R-S* learning – stimulus vs. response learning; cc vs. oc; the association of a biologically significant event with an event that came either before or after it. Essay : 1. Discuss the mind/body problem. Why is it important, and what does it have to do with a course on conditioning and learning? Problem: What is the nature of human behavior and cognition? Dualist claim: Descartes says body governed by physical principles and mind not governed by physical principles (i.e. independent of the body); Mind is source of freewill and behavior, separating us from animals. Gave rise to notion of reflex that connect stimulus and response.
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