Human Memory - Human Memory There are three basic questions...

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Human Memory There are three basic questions to ask about memory: how are memories formed? (encoding) how are memories retained? (storage) how are memories recalled? (retrieval) Encoding encoding is an active process requires selective attention to the material to be encoded memories may then be affected by the amount or type of attention devoted to the task of encoding the material other aspects of encoding o elaboration=associating with other information o visual imagery can be used to add richness to the material to be remembered (also adds more sensory modalities) see research by Paivio then have two chances to remember something: visual and verbal o self-referent: make the material personally relevant this requires deciding how the information is personally relevant Storage Over the years, analogies have been made to the new technology of the day to try to explain memory...current theories use a computer based model or information processing model the most accepted model states that there are three stages of memory storage: sensory store, short-term store, and long-term store. o sensory store retains the sensory image for only a small part of a second, just long enough to develop a perception o short term memory (STM) lasts for about 20 to 30 seconds without rehearsal of the information o long term memory has been suggested to be permanent: that nothing is forgotten only the means of retrieving it is lost
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so rehearsal helps get things into long term memory but there are different kinds of rehearsal: maintenance rehearsal: simple recitation elaborative rehearsal: meaning of the information is involved and this is more likely to cause shift into long term memory organizational structures of long term memory clustering: related items are usually remembered together (like chunking in short term memory) conceptual hierarchies: classification scheme used when possible to organize memories semantic networks are less neatly organized bunches of conceptual hierarchies linked together by associations to other concepts schemas are clusters of knowledge about an event or object abstracted from prior experience with the object (we tend to recall objects that fit our conception of the situation better than ones that do not) a script is a schema which organizes our knowledge about common things or activities: if you know the script applicable to the event, you can better remember the elements of the event Retrieval memory retrieval is not a random process cues can help with retrieval o context cues: perhaps it is the process of reinstatement of context cues that accounts for the helpfulness of hypnosis in recall o mood: state dependent memory refers to the improvement in recall that can occur when the same emotional state is created as was present in the acquisition phase memories are reconstructions (Bartlett, 1932) o schema theory and findings supports this notion as well o
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