Lecture 1 - Lecture 1 Clicker question: Plasma membranes...

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Lecture 1 Clicker question: Plasma membranes expand by- budding of the endoplasmic reticulum. Very important: all cells use the same building blocks and that gives you an advantage because you don’t have to deal with anything exotic. In prokaryotes, there are some sorts of cytoskeletons (Actin-like filaments). One of the main differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the lack of internal membranes in prokaryotes. Know the functions of organelles! Many of the membranous structures in eukaryote cells are multi-functional structures. Eg. Mitochondrion does at least 12-15 different functions. There are eukaryotes that can be exceeding small and there are prokaryotes that can be exceeding big. Eg. Ostreococcus tauri (green algae) is smaller than many bacteria. What do cells do? They grow, differentiate, carry out functions, they can stop dividing; they can get very quiet and die. What’s very interesting is that cells have functions and under certain circumstances they can assume a new function. Eg. Somatic cells carrying out one function can be reprogrammed to carry out another; you take a kidney cell and reprogram it into a cardiac cell. Question- since all cells carry the same DNA and therefore the same genes, how is it that cells can take on different functions that way during development and can it be reversed? It can be reversed. Epigenetic cascade As a cell (totipotent) divides and becomes multicellular, it goes into different places in this cascade and becomes different cells; in this case becoming a muscle cell, macrophage, b cell and what’s been superimposed in here are signaling molecules which are causing this totipotent cells to take on a new pathway. How do they all do it since they have the same genes? Cellular Structure
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Lecture 1 - Lecture 1 Clicker question: Plasma membranes...

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