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Ch09_Outline - Chapter9 Oceans:TheLast Frontier...

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 Chapter 9  Oceans: The Last  Frontier
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    The Vast World Ocean  Earth is often referred to as the  blue  planet   Seventy-one percent of Earth’s surface  is represented by oceans and marginal  seas  Continents and islands comprise the  remaining 29 %    Northern Hemisphere is called the  land hemisphere, and the Southern  Hemisphere the water hemisphere  
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    Views of the  Northern and  Southern  Hemispheres Figure 9.1
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    The Vast World Ocean  Four main ocean basins    Pacific Ocean— The largest and has the  greatest depth  Atlantic Ocean About half the size of  the Pacific and not quite as deep  Indian Ocean Slightly smaller than the  Atlantic, largely a Southern Hemisphere  body  Arctic Ocean About 7 percent the size  of the Pacific 
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    The Oceans of Earth Figure 9.2 B
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    Composition of Seawater  Salinity    Salinity   is the total amount of solid  material dissolved in water  Typically expressed as a % Dissolved substances in seawater are small  numbers and therefore expressed in  parts  per thousand   (‰) Most of the salt in seawater is sodium  chloride (table salt)
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    Dissolved Components  in Seawater Figure 9.3
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    Composition of Seawater  Salinity   Sources of sea salts  Chemical weathering of rocks on continents  is one source Second major source is Earth’s interior  through volcanic eruptions Process called  outgassing Composition of seawater has been  relatively stable for millions of years Material is removed just as rapidly as it is  added
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    Composition of Seawater  Salinity   Processes affecting seawater salinity Primarily due to changes in the water  content of the solution  These include the addition of fresh water  due to precipitation, runoff, icebergs  melting, and sea-ice melting The removal of fresh water by evaporation  and the formation of sea ice also affect  salinity
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    The Ocean’s  Layered Structure  Temperature and salinity change  with depth in the oceans A three-layered structure exists in the  open ocean Shallow surface mixed zone Transition zone Deep zone A layer of rapid temperature change  below the zone of mixing is known as  the  thermocline
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    The Ocean’s  Layered Structure 
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