Ch11_Outline - Chapter11 HeatingtheAtmosphere...

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 Chapter 11  Heating the Atmosphere
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Weather and Climate  Weather    Weather is over a short period of time  Constantly changing Climate Climate is over a long period of time  Generalized, composite of weather  
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Weather and Climate Elements of weather and climate  Properties that are measured regularly  Most important elements Temperature Humidity Cloudiness Precipitation Air pressure Wind speed and direction
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Composition of  the Atmosphere Air is a mixture of discrete gases Major components of clean, dry air     Nitrogen (N)—78% Oxygen (O 2 )—21% Argon and other gases  Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )—0.038%— absorbs heat energy from Earth 
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Composition of Dry Air Figure 11.3
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Composition of  the Atmosphere Variable components of air  Water vapor  Up to about 4% of the air's volume Forms clouds and precipitation Absorbs heat energy from Earth   Aerosols Tiny solid and liquid particles  Water vapor can condense on solids Reflect sunlight Help color sunrise and sunset 
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Composition of  the Atmosphere Variable components of air  Ozone   Three atoms of oxygen (O 3 ) Distribution not uniform  Concentrated between 10 to 50 kilometers  above the surface  Absorbs harmful UV radiation  Human activity is depleting ozone by adding  chlorofluorocarbons   (CFCs)  
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Structure of  the Atmosphere  Pressure changes  Pressure is the weight of the air above  Average sea level pressure Slightly more than 1000 millibars About 14.7 pounds per square inch  Pressure decreases with altitude  One-half of the atmosphere is below 3.5  miles (5.6 km)  Ninety percent of the atmosphere is below  10 miles (16 km) 
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Atmospheric  Pressure  Variation  with Altitude Figure 11.6
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Ch11_Outline - Chapter11 HeatingtheAtmosphere...

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