lecture14 - Nuclear Fission Radioactivity Fission reactions...

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ENGRI 1290 1 Nuclear Fission Radioactivity Fission reactions Fission yields
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ENGRI 1290 2 Lecture’s objectives • Learning what is radioactivity • Finding out what are the characteristics of nuclear reactions • Discovering the danger of nuclear wastes
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ENGRI 1290 3 Fission reactions Energy gain from fusion from fission Remember 1eV = 1.6E-19 J While this seems small, it corresponds to a temperature of 11,604K at the atomic level. There is an energy gain in nuclear fission from element with atomic number larger than 56 Fe
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ENGRI 1290 4 Discovery of X-rays X-rays were discovered by accident. Wilhelm Röntgen was working on vacuum tubes (like cathode ray tubes in old TVs) in 1895. X-rays are high energy photons with a wavelength between 10 picometers and 10 nanometers. They are dangerous because they are ionizing radiations which can damage biological cells walls. Radiation with higher energy (gamma rays) can damage DNA, creating cancer cells (minor DNA damage) or cell death (major DNA damage). The röntgen (R) is a unit which measures the amount of ionizing radaitions. A ray of energy 1 R can ionize 2x10 9 atoms. First X-ray image of Fraulein Röntgen’s hand with wedding ring.
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ENGRI 1290 5 Discovery of radio-activity Discovery of radioactivity: it was discovered by Henri Bequerel in 1896 by accident. He was using photographic plates to measure phosphorescent materials.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course ENGRI 1290 taught by Professor Gourdain during the Fall '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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lecture14 - Nuclear Fission Radioactivity Fission reactions...

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