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lecture16 - Nuclear Reactors II Operating reactors Fast...

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ENGRI 1290 1 Nuclear Reactors II Operating reactors Fast breeders Management of wastes Safety
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ENGRI 1290 2 Lecture’s objectives Finding out how big are the uranium world reserves Understanding how CANDU and fast breeder reactors work Learning how waste and safety are managed by the nuclear industry
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ENGRI 1290 3 Known uranium world reserves Total 5.4 Mt for Uranium recovery cost at 80 $/kg Estimated 40 Mt for Uranium recovery cost at 130 $/kg
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ENGRI 1290 4 Energy reserves We have 40 to 100 years of reserves of 235 U. What if we can also burn 238 U? It is possible to burn 238 U if we use fast neutrons from the 235 U fission. This is the design principle of CANDU reactors. It is also possible to use fast neutrons to transmute 238 U into 239 Pu. This is done in fast breeders. Breeders can produce 24 TJ/kg of 238 U. How much time is left before we run out of nuclear fuel? 4,000 years Recoverable reserves at 80$kg ? 2 ZJ or 2x10 21 Z It is also possible to get 233 U from 232 Th in fast breeders: Th can achieve higher energy densities, and the fission yields are not as dangerous as the
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