lecture17 - Fusion Energy Plasmas Fusion reactions Plasma...

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ENGRI 1290 1 Fusion Energy Plasmas Fusion reactions Plasma confinements
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ENGRI 1290 2 Lecture’s objectives • Learning the nature of plasmas • Understanding fusion reactions • Discovering the different types of plasma confinements
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ENGRI 1290 3 The plasma state Fusion happens naturally in stars. Gas particles collide and when their nuclei are close together they merge and energy is released. As the atoms collide, they knock their electrons off. Only few collisions yield fusion but all collisions knock off electrons. As a result, stars are mode out of plasma. Plasma is a ionized gas where ions and electrons are not combined because of collisions. e - e - p + p + All matter visible in the universe is made out of plasmas!
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ENGRI 1290 4 Fusion in the sun (proton cycle) The Sun’s fusion is based on proton-proton fusion. This is one of the most powerful nuclear reaction known to men! Energy density: 645 TJ/kg The next best thing is matter- antimatter reactions E=mc 2 with an energy density E/m of 89.9 PJ/kg For fusion reactions to happen, huge amounts of energy are required. In stars, this energy is provided by gravitation!
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ENGRI 1290 5 Fusion reactions on Earth Gravitational pressure is the source of energy that makes fusion possible. On Earth, energy has to be provided to force ion together. As a result economical fusion is extremely challenging. 20 keV 3 H 2 H 20 keV 4 He 3.4MeV 14.1MeV 1 n It is not possible at the moment to get economical fusion from the proton cycle or even other fusion reactions except one: 2 H (Deuterium)- 3 H (Tritium) reactions Note: for atoms, 1eV corresponds to thermal motion of 11,594.2 K.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course ENGRI 1290 taught by Professor Gourdain during the Fall '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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lecture17 - Fusion Energy Plasmas Fusion reactions Plasma...

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