Vanek - Transportation Energy: An Introduction and Overview...

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Transportation Energy: An Introduction and Overview Francis Vanek School of Civil & Environmental Engineering Cornell University
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Test of your background ± What are the five main modes of transportation? ± Answer: 1. Highway 2. Rail 3. Marine 4. Air 5. Pipeline
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Test of your background ± What is the dominant energy source for transportation? ± Answer: Oil (aka petroleum) ± Into what three transportation energy products is it made? ± Answer: 1. Gasoline 2. Diesel 3. Jet fuel
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Outline of talk 1. Challenges for transportation energy 2. Focus on “Light duty passenger vehicles” 3. Focus on “Multimodal systems passenger Transportation” 4. Freight Transportation 5. Question & answer
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Challenges for Transportation Energy
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The challenge for transportation energy ± Technology needed: ± To make existing resources last longer i.e. efficiency ± To harness new energy sources ± Objectives ± Technically working well ± Affordable price
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Premise #2: Challenge for energy infrastructure: A “supply chain” problem Needed: ± Raw materials ± Factories etc. to build devices ± People with skills ± Design, build, install, maintain ± Locations to install infrastructure ± Carbon-free energy for transportation
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Examples of major infrastructure: Case of High-Speed Rail in China ± Planned investment: ± $300B through 2020 ± Miles to be built: ± 6,800 miles by 2012 ± 4,350 miles + by 2020 ± Hiring goal for 2009: ± 20,000 entry-level engineers ± Wuhan-Guanzhou line: Concept to ribbon-breaking in just nine years! 2000-2009. Source: http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/08/china-high-speed-rail-leave-us-in-the-dust.php
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Concern #1: Energy security & nonrenewable resources ± EUR = Estimated Ultimate Recovery ± Depending on EUR value, “PEAK OIL” may come sooner…or later ± Remember: the problems start happening at the peak, NOT at the tail
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Trend in Relative Growth in US Energy Consumption by Sector 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Relative growth (1970 = 1.00) Freight Passenger All Trans. All Energy ResComm Industrial Source: Francis Vanek and Edward Morlok; “Reducing US Freight Energy Use Through Commodity Based Analysis: Justification and Implementation.” Transportation Research Part D, Vol.5 No.1 pp. 11-29, 2000, for 1970-1995; unpublished analysis for 2000.
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US Energy Consumption by End Use 1970-2000 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Energy [EJ/year] Freight Passenger All Trans. ResComm Industrial
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Figure 5-2. United States petroleum output including all states, 1900–2005. Vanek & Albright, p.117
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$- $20.00 $40.00 $60.00 $80.00 $100.00 $120.00 $140.00 $160.00 Jan 99 Jan 08 Jul 08 Dec Jun 0 8 Jul 8/ 25/ 2009 Cost [$/barrel] Source: Science, November 2008
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Concern #2: Climate Change ± Many possible risks. Examples: ± Effect on water supply ± Effect on crops ± Rising sea level ± Extreme weather ± Effect on biodiversity ± Etc.
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Mer de Glace glacier, near Mt. Blanc, France, summer 2007.
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Vanek - Transportation Energy: An Introduction and Overview...

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