CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE! - I The Constitution A The Constitution...

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I: The Constitution A) The Constitution as a Reflection of Political Conflict a. The Colonies had experienced heavy taxing and diminishing rights under England, leading to the American Revolution. i. King of England appointed most colonial govs to govern on his behalf; therefore governors owed jobs to king put England’s interests ahead of colonists ii. 18 th century(King George III): Imposed taxes to help pay for French and Indian war…colonist had no voice in decision to impose taxes they were required to pay “no taxation w/o representation” iii. American Revolution was fought to preserve liberties that Americans already had as colonists and obtain freedom from G.B; achieved independence w/ defeat of English at Yorktown in 1781 and signing of Treaty of Paris in 1783 b. The document adapted by the founders to be the overriding law was The Articles of Confederation , written by the states (1777) and adopted in 1781. It established a system of strong states and a weak national government with a legislative branch but no executive or judicial branches and few powers beyond the sphere of foreign relations. i. All powers of the national gov were vested in Congress bc under British rule the colonists grew to respect the power of their elected legislatures and to distrust a strong central authority ii. Created a confederal gov: states retain supreme power over events within their borders; national gov exercises only those powers states choose to give it (states gave national gov the power of managing foreign relations) iii. Created problems debt, stagnant economy, shays rebellion c. The many flaws of the Articles of Confederation were finally realized due to Shays’ Rebellion , a protest of small farmers from western Massachusetts against the state’s taxes and policy of foreclosing on debtor farmers. The governor of Massachusetts asked the national government for help but the Articles of Confederation made it nearly impossible to give the help. d. 1786 Meeting was held in Annapolis to revise A.O.C; only 5 out of 13 states show; Hamilton (NY) calls for another convention for following year in Philadelphia e. The Constitutional Convention (1787 in Philadelphia) was called to create a new governing document and fix national gov. In regards to national representation, there were two plans:
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i. The Virginia Plan ( introduced by Madison and Randolph) called for strong, essentially unitary national government, with separate executive and judicial branches, and a two-house legislative branch with representation based on population….every voter would be equally represented in national legislature ii. The New Jersey Plan consisted of giving each state equal representation in the national legislature, regardless of population. iii. This problem was resolved by the
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CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE! - I The Constitution A The Constitution...

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