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FINAL DEFS (1) - Part 1 Articles of Confederation the newly...

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Part 1 Articles of Confederation - the newly independent states needed to adopt some collective government mechanism. Shay’s Rebellion - occurred in Massachusetts during the mid 1780’s. The farmers were in debt and decided to go to the government. When they were turned away, they came back with arms and threatened to march on Boston. Under the Virginia Plan, Congress had two houses, but under the New Jersey Plan, they had one house. Virginia Plan Congress had two houses (Congress) Both houses were based on population (representation in Congress) Simple majority (decision rule) Single, elected by Congress (executive) By Congress (removal of executive) Nation judiciary, elected by Congress (courts) New Jersey Plan Congress had one house Had equal representation for each state Extraordinary majority More than one person By majority of states Cross-cutting Cleavages - Divisions that split society into small groups so that in different policy areas, people have different allies and opponents, and so that no group forms a majority on all issues. Pluralism - The theory that political power is spread widely and that on different issues different groups of people exercise power. Pluralism is different groups competing in society Civil Liberties - The freedoms guaranteed to all Americans in the Bill of Rights (although some are found in the body of the Constitution. These liberties include freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the right to assemble peaceably.
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Bad Tendency Doctrine - The doctrine that speech need only be likely to lead to negative consequences in Congress’s judgment, for it to be illegal Incitement Standard (1969)- The doctrine that speech must cause listeners to be likely to commit immediate illegal acts for the speech itself to be illegal.
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