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ARG MARKERS; VALIDITY; CONDITIONALS - then Peter can retire...

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Argument Markers o Indicate in English when statement is a premise o Since; because; for; as Conclusion Markers o Indicate in English when statement is a conclusion o Therefore; hence; ergo; thus; then Evaluating Arguments o Arguments are evaluated in terms of being valid/invalid’ sound/ unsound; or to a matter of degree weak/strong o Never evaluated as T/F bc you only evaluate propositions with these terms and arguments aren’t propositions Conditionals o Statements (propositions or declarative sentences) o Not arguments; evaluated by T/F o False when antecedent event is T and consequent is F If <antecedent> then <consequent> If Netflix stock goes above $300,
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Unformatted text preview: then Peter can retire a rich man. • Validity o A valid argument has the following properties: IF the premises are true, THEN the conclusion must be true o An argument is valid If and Only If it is not possible for all of its premises to be true and its conclusion false. o Validity is a property of an argument's FORM, not its content. Relationship of terms/ideas whether than what the terms actually mean 1') All As are Bs. 2') All Cs are As. 3') Therefore, all Cs are Bs. ….no instance in which premises are T and conclusion is F • Argument Forms o Modus Ponens If p then q p-------------------Therefore, q...
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