Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE • Argument o...

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Unformatted text preview: FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE • Argument o Connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition o Must consists of premise(s) and a conclusion; need to be connected properly (two types of connection are deductively valid and non-deductively valid) o Evaluated by invalid/ valid; sound/unsound; degree of strength (inductive) o Never evaluated by T/F (only premises and conclusions are evaluated by these terms) o Purpose of an argument is to provide justification (reasons to believe conclusion) and explanation (reasons why their conclusion is true) {main purpose: give reasons} o “good arguments” can be either deductive(valid) or non deductive(invalid) o Deductive arguments provide complete support for conclusion; Inductive arguments’ premises provide some degree of suport • Argument Markers o Indicate in English when statement is a premise o Since; as; because; for • Conclusion Markers o Indicate in English when statement is a conclusion o Therefore; ergo; hence; thus; then • Evaluating Deductive Arguments o Arguments are evaluated in terms of their being valid/invalid; sound/unsound (formally bc we are showing you can generate truth) o Never evaluate arguments as being T/F (only reserved for evaluation of propositions and arguments aren’t propositions) o Deductive arguments are valid arguments that are truth persevering (+); doesn’t expand our knowledge • Validity o A valid argument has the following properties: IF the premises are true, THEN conclusion must be true o All- or- nothing quality; either valid or invalid o Argument is valid ONLY if it isn’t possible for all its premises to be true and its conclusion false o Property of an argument form not its content o Two ways of evaluating if argument is valid or invalid= informal and formal method o When testing for validity with informal method, try coming up with one instance where the premises( of the form) are all true and the conclusion is false First: isolate the form of the argument, ignoring the content See whether you can come up w/ an instance in which the premises are true and conclusion is false If you can find at least 1 example, argument=invalid!! • Forms of Arguments o Modus Ponens: If p then q; p; therefore, q;(valid) o Modus Tollens: if p then q; ~Q; therefore ~P (valid) o Affirming the Consequent: if P then Q; Q; therefore, P(invalid) o Proccess of Elimination: P v Q; ~P; therefore Q (valid) • Soundness o An argument is sound if and only if the argument is valid and the premises are all true o Must have true premises; true conclusion; valid argument form • Circularity o When the conclusion contains the premise o All As are Bs Therefore, All As are Bs • Connection Rules o Conjunction Rules Look at all possible combinations (truth value) Conjunction means “and” or “&” For conjunction to be true P and Q both must be true o Disjunction “v” or “or” (inclusive) For disjunction to be true P or Q must be true...
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHIL 1200 taught by Professor Davey during the Fall '08 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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Exam 2 Study Guide - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE • Argument o...

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