Kaley's Biocultural Anthro Vocab

Kaley's Biocultural Anthro Vocab - Biocultural Anthropology...

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Unformatted text preview: Biocultural Anthropology Anthropology: The study of humanity at all times and in all places • Cultural : The study of learned behavior patterns of extant groups o Ethnography : The study of all the behaviors of one culture o Ethnology : The study of one behavior across many cultures o Social Anthropology : The study of human social structures o Psychological Anthropology : The study of intelligence across many cultures • Physical : The study of humans as biological organisms o Paleontology : The biological study of extinct humans Fossil Hunters o Human Variation : The biological study of extant humans Why people look different o Primatology : The biological study of human’s closest relatives Jane Goodal • Linguistics : The study of Language o Historical Linguistics : The study of the evolution and development of language o Social Linguistics : The study of the daily use of language in society o Psycholinguistics : The cross-cultural study of language acquisition (how language is acquired) • Archaeology : The study of learned behavior patterns of extinct groups o Prehistoric Archaeology : The study of human material culture before written records o Historic Archaeology : The study of human material culture in cultures with written records o Contract Archaeology : The study of excavating and preserving human material culture Induction : The process of developing a general explanation from specific observations Deduction : Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were t rue. Works from the general to the specific Hypothesis : A proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon Theory : A general idea that explains a large set of factual patterns Gene : Shortened pieces of DNA which carry the genetic code or blueprint for our development, physical characteristics, and possibly aging and death (our biological clock) Chromosome : Double strands of DNA found in the nucleus of every cell—carry genes on them Karyotyping : The science of counting and sorting chromosomes (different species have different numbers of chromosomes—humans have 23 pairs, 46 total) Asexual reproduction (mitosis) : Simple cell division; need only one sex; produces an identical copy of the original parent; Works well in very stable environment Sexual reproduction (meiosis) : Reduction/division; need two parents; results in a unique recombination of genetic material every mating; produces variation in the genetic material of a breeding population; variations measured as gene frequencies (%) of the breeding population; works well in a changing environment Gamete : The cell of reproduction, which contain only half the chromosomes of a normal cell Evolution : The idea that species change over time and have a common ancestor A change in the gene frequency of breeding population from one generation to the next (a change in the genetic makeup of a small breeding group of individuals over time) Genetic drift: A change in gene frequency as a result of a group of individuals becoming...
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course ANTH 0620 taught by Professor Mooney during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Kaley's Biocultural Anthro Vocab - Biocultural Anthropology...

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