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Kaley's Biocultural Anthropology Study Guide 2

Kaley's Biocultural Anthropology Study Guide 2 -...

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Biocultural Anthropology Yekuana Live in the Amazon Eat cassava—toxic root o Have to process to get out toxins Hydrolysis to get rid of toxicity—makes cyanide Nabonidus : King of Babylonia who excavated and rebuilt ruined temples of Babylon considered an “Antiquarian” Ciriaco : Historian during Italian Renaissance who translated Latin inscriptions and promotes the studying of ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman Schleiman: Discovered Troy o Studied the Iliad to determine approx. location, used scientific hypothesis testing to determine the correct site —organized large scale excavation o Developed techniques Stratigraphy and dating Pottery analysis Artifact and data recording o Brought large number of scholarly disciplines together o found large amounts of treasure, but kept much of it for own personal collection called “The father of modern Archaeology” Jacques Boucher de Perther : Found crude stone tools (lithic) and hand axes in French quarries in context with bones of extinct animals postulated the existence of very early hominids but was in conflict with church ideas Thomas Jefferson : Scientifically excavated a Native American burial mound on his plantation in Virginia Wrote a scholarly work on his findings and speculated on people of the New World The Father of American Archaeology Taphonomy : How things become preserved in the archaeological record (Shell Middens, Buried as result of catastrophe, Buried intentionally (grave goods)) Context analysis : Important because it can add additional environment information Matrix analysis : Matrix= the rock, clay, or sand artifacts are buried in (round or scratched rocks) Floral Analysis: Plant, seed, and pollen remains from a site. Can tell possible diet, local weather conditions… Faunal analysis : Animal remains from a site. Can tell possible diet and give clues to local environmental conditions Shovel probing : Assemblage : gathering together: a gathering of things or people at one point Stratigraphy : The study of Earth’s strata Prehistoric archaeology : The study of human material culture before written records Historic archaeology : The study of human material culture in cultures with written records Paleolithic : old stone age 2.5mya- 10,000ya Based on big game hunting and gathering o Fishing traditions Longest of the three periods Simple tool complex and assemblages Small group structures Use of fire Lower : o 2.5 mya -125,000ya o Oldowan Tool complex o Homo Habilis o Acheulian tool complex o Homo erectus
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Middle : o 125,000ya to 30,000 ya o Evolution of tool types and manufacturing o Levalloisian core technique o Mousterian tool complex o Homo Neanderthal o Homo sapiens- archaic Upper : 30,000ya to 10,000 ya o Blade technology o Venus figurines o Cave paintings o Tools associated with transition from homo Neanderthal to archaic homo sapiens Mesolithic : 10,000ya to 7,000ya Transition from big game hunting to small game hunting and extensive gathering
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