Physical Anthropology vocabulary

Physical Anthropology vocabulary - Physical Anthropology...

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Physical Anthropology Notes EXAM 1 CHAPTER 1 Anthropology : The study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of all people and all times Cultural Anthropology : Study present-day societies in non-Western settings, such as in Africa, South America, or Australia; Culture is the unifying theme of study Culture : Learned behavior that is transmitted from person to person Archaeology : Study of past human societies focusing mostly on their material remains- such as plant and animal remains and places where people lived in the past Artifacts : Material objects from past cultures Linguistic Anthropology : Study the construction and use of language by human societies Language : A set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things (People, places, concepts, etc.) other than themselves Sociolinguistics : The science of investigating language’s social contexts Physical/Biological Anthropology : Study of all aspects of present and past human biology Biocultural approach : The scientific study of the interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture Hominids : A group of extinct and living bipedal primates in the family hominidae Primates : A group of mammals in the order Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including larger brains, forward-facing eyes, fingernails, and reduced snouts Bipedalism : Walking on two legs Nonhoning Canine : An upper canine that, as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism, is not sharpened against the lower third premolar Material Culture : The part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments Data : Evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and fill gaps in scientific knowledge Hypothesis : Testable statements that potentially explain specific phenomena observed in the natural world Scientific Method : An empirical research method in which data is gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypotheses
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Empirical : Verified through observation and experiment Theory : A set of hypotheses that have been rigorously tested and validated, leading to their establishment as a generally accepted explanation of specific phenomena Anatomical : Pertaining to an organism’s physical structure Arboreal : Tree-dwelling; adapted to living in the trees Morphology : Physical shape and appearance Scientific Law : A theory that becomes absolutely true Forensic Anthropology : The scientific examination of skeletons in hope of identifying the people whose bodies they came from CHAPTER 2 Adaptations : Changes in physical structure, function, or behavior that allow an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment Adaptive radiation : The diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches Allele : One or more alternative forms of a gene
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course ANTH 0680 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Physical Anthropology vocabulary - Physical Anthropology...

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