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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 PEOPLE Charles Darwin : 1831-22yrs old-HMS beagle trip 5 yrs. Hired as naturalist? ( ask robyn about because in lecture he said wasn’t) o Trained in medicine and theology o Would collect, document and study natural—plants and animals-- world everywhere ship harbored o His ideas would provide the key to understanding the origin and evolution of life itself Began questioning origins of species of animals and plants o Most prominent observations concerned the physical differences/variation between and among members of species or like animals and like plants Finches on Galapagos island differ from island to island and on same island vary according to habitat Explained differences and how the different species rose by the “descent with modification” or the theory of evolution Saw adaptation everywhere and concluded that it was the crux of evolution Coined the term natural selection o Natural selection is the primary driver of evolution Also thought of the process of adaptive radiation Regarded evolution as biological change from generation to generation By late 1700’s scientists realized three key things: The earth is very ancient, its surface is very different than it was is the past, and plants and animals have changed over time provided context for his theory
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To develop theory drew on info from geology, paleontology, taxonomy and systematics, demography and evolutionary biology Influenced by Malthus’ An Essay on the Principle of Population o Concluded from essay that some members of any species successfully compete for food because they have special attributes Uniformitarianism led him to recognize that the accumulation of such catastrophes over time explains at least in part the appearance of the present day landscape o Laid groundwork for view of evolution as a long gradual process Read about Cuvier and fossils went to South America and saw some evidence strongly suggested that an earlier species had transformed into modern species based on fossils resembling modern animals, most likely through a succession of species over time From Malthus’ ideas on population and variation thought that in specific environmental conditions “favorable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed, the result of this would be the formation of a new species.” Background research started in 1830’s but not until 1856 that Darwin had enough evidence and developed his ideas enough to begin writing “On the origin of Species o ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE wrote Darwin a note in 1858 outlining his theory of evolution by means of natural selection independently he had arrived at most of the same conclusions Darwin had Wallace (1823-1913) o Darwin published in 1859 so to get credit for the theory Darwin then went onto try answer the question “How do traits that are being selected for (Or against) pass from parent to offspring?” Believed in blending inheritance
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