Book notes Exam II

Book notes Exam II - Book Notes Exam II CHAPTER 5 NOTES:...

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Unformatted text preview: Book Notes Exam II CHAPTER 5 NOTES: Traits that have often been seen as racial are adaptations influenced by natural selection American anthropologist C. Loring Brace argued that race concept got its start in 14C renaissance German anatomist Johann Friedrich Blimenbach (1752-1840) o Developed biological taxonomy of human races 1775 o Based taxonomy on human skin color, and other physical traits(mainly features on the skull like facial projection) o Concluded there were 5 races of people Mongoloids Malays Ethiopians (Africans) American Indians Caucasoid o Static, didnt change over time o Set the tone for the popular perception of human variation: that humans come in categorical types called races Boas challenged ^ Concluded that the race concept was invalid because not static over timemeasures lengths of skulls between kids and adultsfound that head shapes differed by an amount calculable by math American Geneticist RC Lewontin tested the race concept by studying global genetic variation o Found that races accounted for 5-10 percent of genetic diversity o Did study through blood groups, serum proteins, and red blood cell enzyme variants o Most variation occurred across human populations regardless of racial makeup Best example of cline is human skin color variations Human growth cycle has 3 stages o Prenataltrimesters of pregnancy and ends with birth o Postnatalneonatal period(1 st month) infancy( 2 nd month to end of lactation end of 3 rd year) childhood(3-7) juvenile (girls7-10; boys7-12) puberty( days or weeks) and adolescence (5-10 yrs after puberty) o Adultreproductive period (20- end of child bearing) Senescence( time after child bearing years) Biologically adulthood is characterized by the completion of sexual maturity, the reaching of full height, and the fusion of the epiphyses Genetic adaptation occurs at the population level via natural selection Developmental adaptation occurs at the level of the individual during critical periods of growth and development, childhood especially Acclimatization aka physiological adaptation occurs at the individual level at any time during persons life o Not inherited and can be reversed (exampletanning) Cultural or behavioral adaptation involves the use of material culture to make living possible in certain settings o Examplewearing winter jacket to survive cold All adaptations have a purpose: the maintenance of internal homeostasis o Aka maintenance of the normal functioning of all organs and physiological systems Indirect approachesstudy of populations in natural environments Direct approachreplication of environmental conditions and of human responses to these conditions Vasodilation allows more blood to move through a vessel (and heat) away from the core of the body The body needs UV radiation for the synthesis of vitamin D Without vitamin D in active form, bones do not mineralize correctly causing a disease...
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course ANTH 0680 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Book notes Exam II - Book Notes Exam II CHAPTER 5 NOTES:...

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