Class notes Exam II

Class notes Exam II - Class notes Exam II Anatomical...

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Class notes Exam II Anatomical Terminology o Standard anatomical position: Supline Feet together Arms by your side Palms up-- thumbs out o Medial Pointing towards center of a body o Lateral Pointing out from center of a body o Superior Above center\ Toward the head o Inferior Below center Away from the head, toward the tail o Proximal Above (in terms of limbs) Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk o Distal Below (in terms of limbs) Farther from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk Directional Terminology o Sagittal plane: Left and right portions o Coronal/Frontal plane: Anterior and posterior portions (Front/back)
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o Transverse Plane: horizontal, cross- sectional Bone composition o 3 regions Epiphysis (plural) (fuses when done growing) Metaphysis (attaches to Diaphysis (shaft in long bones) o 3 types (tissue) Cortical (compact) (middle)—outer layer of bone—mineral tissue Cancellous/ trabecular (spongy/ end) Marrow o 2 Types of bones Membrane- Think plate-like form differently from membranous tissue Cartilaginous-more likely to be chunkier bone Regulatory molecules tell when membrane or cartilaginous tissue to turn to bone Axial Skeleton —Top of skeleton o Skull and Hyoid Hyoid is the only free floating bone o Vertebral column o Scrum o Ribs o Sternum o Maxilla (upper jaw) Mandible (Lower jaw) o Foramen Magnum (where spine meets skull) o The principle supportive structure of the body is oriented along its median longitudinal axis. It includes the skill, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and hyoid bone. Much
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of the mobility of the torso is due to the multiple articulations throughout the vertebral column Bones of the skull Cranial: Occupital, 2 parietal, frontal, 2 temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid Facial: 2 Maxilla, mandible Vertebral Column : o 7 cervical C1—atlas—holds the head C2—Axis—How the head rotates o 12 thoracic 12 ribs 1-7 true ribs because attached to sternum 8-10 False ribs b/c attached to cartilage 11-12 false ribs—free floating o 5 Lumbar The Appendicular Skeleton o The upper limbs Shoulder girdle (clavicle Scapula) Arms- Scapula, humorous, ulna, radius Hands (Carpal—wrist metacarpal—palm; Phalanges—hands) o Lower limbs Pelvic Girdle 5 th lumbar vertebrate Sacrum Ilium holds the bowl of the pelvis (hip bones) Pubis
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Ischium butt Acetabulum—round socket where hip and leg join Legs femur, Tibia, Fibula(long skinny lateral), patella Feet Tarsals—ankle; metatarsals—arch; phalanges—toes o Includes pectoral and pelvic girdles and the bones of the arms, forearms, wrists, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. The joints of the appendicular skeleton make possible a considerable degree of freedom for the upper and lower limbs. Fractures and dislocations are more common in this part of the skeleton, but more serious in the
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Class notes Exam II - Class notes Exam II Anatomical...

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