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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide Exam 2 CHAPTER F I VE Adult Stage : The third stage of life, involving the reproductive years and senescence Aging : The process of maturation Allens Rule : The principle that an animals limb lengths are heat related; limbs are longer in hot environments and shorter in cold environments Anthropometry : The study of the sizes and proportions of the human body Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) : The rate at which an organisms body, while at rest, expends energy to maintain basic bodily functions; measured by the amount of heat given off per kilogram of body weight Basal Metabolic Requirement : The minimum amount of energy needed to keep an organism alive Bergmanns Rule : The principle that an animals size is heat-related; smaller bodies are adapted to got environments Bone Mass : The density of bone per unit of measure Cline : A gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next Cognitive Abilities : Refers to the capacity of the brain to perceive, process, and judge information from the surrounding environment Deciduous Dentition : Also known as baby teeth or milk teeth, this is the first set of teeth, which form in utero and erupt shortly after birth Diaphyses : The main midsection, or shaft, portions of long bones; each contains a medullary cavity Epiphysis : The end portions of long bones; once they fuse to the diaphysis, the bones stop growing longer Functional Adaptations : Biological changes that occur during an individuals lifetime, increasing the individuals fitness in the given environment Growth Velocity : The speed with which an organism grows in size, often measured as the amount of growth per year Homeostasis : The maintenance of the internal environment of an organism within an acceptable range Homeothermic : Refers to an organisms ability to maintain a constant body temperature despite great variations in environmental temperature Hypercholesterolemia : The presence of high levels of cholesterol in an organisms blood; this condition may result from the dietary consumption of foods that promote high cholesterol or through the inheritance of a genetic disorder Hypothermia : A condition in which an organisms body temperature falls below the normal range, which may lead to the loss of proper body functions, and eventually, death Hypoxia : A condition in which an organism is not able to breathe in adequate amounts of oxygen, leading to low levels of oxygen in the blood, shortness of breath, and, in extreme conditions, death Intrauterine : Refers to the area within the uterus Lactation : The productions and secretion of milk from a female mammals mammary glands, providing a food source to the females young Life History : The details of an organisms existence form conception through senescence and death Macronutrients : Essential chemical nutrients, including fat, carbohydrates, and protein, that a body needs to live and to function normally Melanin : A brown pigment that determines the darkness to lightness of a humans skin...
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- Fall '08
- Physical Anthropology