2-8-11 - 2 2011 l 2 l Master subtitle style Click to edit8...

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Unformatted text preview: 2 2011 l 2 l Master subtitle style Click to edit8 l 9/15/11 1 9/15/11 Passive sentences Shakespeare wrote “Hamlet”. “Hamlet” was written by Shakespeare. 9/15/11 Passive forms • IRR-verb h→ h h h h → ˜˜ ˜˜˜˜ (same as potential form) • l verb l l →l l l l l→ l l 9/15/11 Drop and add l . 9/15/11 Passive forms • l verb Drop –u and add –areru. l l→ l l • ll→ ×l c c○ c areru) 9/15/11 l l→ l l ll (Add –wareru, not – 9/15/11 Passive forms All passive forms → l verb Short (aff.) l l l l 9/15/11 Short N˜Ý ª ½ (neg.) N˜ Ý ª ½ l N˜ Ý ª ½ Te-form l l l l Polite N˜ Ý ª ½ N˜ Ý ª ½ l N˜ Ý ª ½ Three types of passives � �� � (1) -l q O∙ Same as the passive in English 9/15/11 Three types of passives (2) victim l (-) villain l object verb Subject 3 person affected by the incident Object (-) /15/11 9 often what you have/own, Three types of passives (3) l ll v( l ictim l ) lvillain ll verb - - Ð l Subject 3 person affected by the incident Intransitive verbs can be used in 9/15/11 →¨ Ö N ½ ª l ¨ Ö N ½ ª (l l ¨ Ö N ½ ª ¨ Ö N ½ ª 9/15/11 ø →ø Ó N ½ ª (l l 9/15/11 Ó N½ª llø Ó N ½ ª ø Ó N ½ ª 9/15/11 9/15/11 9/15/11 9/15/11 9/15/11 Passive Sentences - - Some passive sentences are not perceptibly unfavorable (ë type 1) èÒN ½ (è Ò N ½ l 9/15/11 ª ( (è Ò N ½ ª )è Ò N ½ (l )l )è Ò N ½ ª ª ( (l ª (l )l ) etc 8¸ª ( ( ˆ •½ª ( Ø 9/15/11 ˜ ¨ Ø ¼ ª ( o 9/15/11 ↓ ½ª H 9/15/11 Ó N½ª ( Passive Sentences Non-human subjects • l no implication of suffering/inconvenience • h ‰• ½ ª 100 l l b À l • l l l • 9/15/11 b À · l l Passive Sentences x)“´ª ( l ÐéFA ÈÏÒ¹ª ( → l My roommate cooked curry, (which I hate the smell,) so I am suffered from it x)“ ´ ª( 9/15/11 ÐéFA ÈÏÒ ¹ ª( ...
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