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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5-1: Carbohydrates and Lipids Macromolecules • Cells join smaller organic molecules together to form larger molecules. • These larger molecules, macromolecules, may be composed of thousands of atoms and weigh over 100,000 daltons. • Large molecules composed of smaller molecules • Have complex structures • All of the critically important large molecules that are used by living organisms on earth fall into one of four categories • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids • Each class of polymer is formed from a specific set of monomers • Although organisms share the same limited number of monomer types, each organism is unique based on the arrangement of monomers into polymers • An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers • Monomers – small repeating units that serve as the building blocks for macromolecules • Like the cars in a train • Polymer – a long molecule composed of many similar or identical monomers joined together by covalent bonds Synthesis of Polymers • Dehydration reaction – a reaction that forms a covalent bond through the loss of a water molecule • One monomer contributes H + • The other monomer contributes the OH- • This is the process that bonds monomers together • The dehydration process is aided by enzymes • Hydrolysis – the process of breaking a covalent bond through the addition of a water molecule • This is the process used to split monomers apart • One monomer accepts H + , the other monomer accepts the OH- 1. Carbohydrates Monosaccharides...
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