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bio Chapter_8 - Chapter 8 Introduction to Metabolism The...

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Chapter 8 : Introduction to Metabolism The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work Some organisms even convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence Metabolism is the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions Bioenergetics is the study of how energy flows through living organisms and how they manage their energy resources Types of Metabolic Pathways Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds (think catastrophe) Ex. cellular respiration Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones (think anabolic steroids) The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism Types of Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions can be classified as either exergonic or endergonic based on free energy. An exergonic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy – occurs spontaneously An endergonic reaction is one that absorbs free energy from its surroundings – requires energy input Forms of Energy
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Energy is the capacity to cause change Energy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure Chemical energy is a form of potential energy, energy is available for release in a chemical reaction (ex. Energy in food) Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
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