{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Ca-PO4 - I.DavidWeiner,M.D 3746102...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Figure 2. Calcium transport along the nephron. Figure 1. An overview of calcium homeostasis. Calcium and phosphate homeostasis I. David Weiner, M.D. 374 6102 [email protected] www.RenalLectures.com Calcium and phosphate play a central role in maintenance of the skeletal, cell signaling and function and provision of energy, as ATP, to cells. Excessive blood calcium levels leads to nausea, vomiting,polyuria,dehydration,hypotension,mentalconfusionandevencoma. Excessphosphate leads to precipitation with calcium in skeletal tissues, including the cardiac conduction system and arteries, leading to failure of normal electrical conduction and vascular disease, respectively. Lack of phosphate leads to ATP deficiency, due to an inability to form ATP from ADP, and complications such as muscular weakness, respiratory failure and skeletal muscle death. Normal calcium homeostasis reflects a balance between oral calcium intake, intestinal excretion and urinary excretion. Figure 1 summarizes the major features of whole organ calcium homeostasis. Dietary calcium intake averages 1000 mg/d and ~800 mg/d is excreted in the stool. GI tract calcium absorption is regulated primarily by 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 , also known as calcitriol. Calcitriol is formed through enzymatic hydroxylation of 25 (OH) vitamin D 3 by renal tubular cells; this process is stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Plasma calcium is ~35 40% protein bound, ~10% complexed with bicarbonate and other anions, and only ~50% is “free” in solution, and thus filterable at the glomerulus. The primary long term regulation of calcium balance is through renal calcium excretion. Figure 2 summarizes the relative transport of calcium along the nephron. The proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium,~70%. Themajorityoccursthroughparacellularroutes, driven by the lumen positive voltage that develops as a result of paracellular chloride reabsorption. A small amount of calcium absorption occurs via transcellular routes. Once again, the loop of Henle is a major site for ion transport, this time for calcium. As shown in Figure 2, ~20% of filteredcalciumisreabsorbedbythethickascendinglimb of the
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Calcium and phosphate homeostasis Page 2 of 4 loop of Henle. The majority of loop of Henle
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}