Proteins_and_Electrophoresis

Proteins_and_Electrophoresis - Proteins and Electrophoresis...

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Proteins and Electrophoresis Roger L. Bertholf, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Pathology Director of Clinical Chemistry & Toxicology
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Protein Trivia The most abundant organic molecule in cells (50% by weight) 30-50K structural genes code for proteins Each cell contains 3-5K distinct proteins About 300 proteins have been identified in plasma
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Functional diversity of proteins Structural Keratin, collagen, actin, myosin Transport Hemoglobin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin Hormonal Insulin, TSH, ACTH, PTH, GH Regulatory Enzymes What else?
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The composition of proteins Amino acids ( simple proteins) 20 common ( standard ) amino acids Conjugated proteins contain a prosthetic group : Metalloproteins Glycoproteins Phosphoproteins Lipoproteins Nucleoproteins
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The size of proteins An arbitrary lower limit is a MW of 5,000 Proteins can have MW greater than 1 million, although most proteins fall in the range of 12-36K 100-300 amino acids Albumin (the most abundant protein in humans) is 66K and contains 550 amino acids ( residues )
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Protein structure Primary structure Amino acid sequence Secondary structure α -helix or random coil Tertiary structure 3-D conformation (globular, fibrous) Quaternary structure Multi-protein assemblies
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Amino acids (1º structure) The amino acid sequence is the only genetically-stored information about a protein Each amino acid is specified by a combination of 3 nucleic acids ( codon ) in m RNA: e.g. , CGU=Arg; GGA=Gly; UUU=Phe
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Properties of amino acids The –R group determines, for the most part, the properties of the amino acid Substances that can either donate or accept a proton are called ampholytes + H 3 N CH C R O - O H 2 N CH C R OH O Undissociated form Zwitterion (dipolar)
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Acid-base properties of amino acids pH equivalents OH - pK 1 pK I pK 2 H 2 N CH C R O - O + H 3 N CH C R OH O + H 3 N CH C R O - O
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Acidic and basic amino acids Acidic – Asp R=CH 2 COO - – Glu R=(CH2) 2 COO - Basic – Lys R=(CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 + – Arg R= (CH 2 ) 3 NHC(NH 2 ) 2 + His R: CH 2 N NH 2 +
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2011 for the course MED 6566 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at University of Florida.

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Proteins_and_Electrophoresis - Proteins and Electrophoresis...

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