Review_of_Analytical_Methods_2

Review_of_Analytical_Methods_2 - Review of Analytical...

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Review of Analytical Methods Part 2: Electrochemistry Roger L. Bertholf, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Pathology Chief of Clinical Chemistry & Toxicology University of Florida Health Science Center/Jacksonville
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Analytical methods used in clinical chemistry Spectrophotometry Electrochemistry Immunochemistry Other Osmometry Chromatography Electrophoresis
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Electrochemistry Electrochemistry applies to the movement of electrons from one compound to another The donor of electrons is oxidized The recipient of electrons is reduced The direction of flow of electrons from one compound to another is determined by the electrochemical potential
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Electrochemical potential Factors that affect electrochemical potential: Distance/shielding from nucleus Filled/partially filled orbitals
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Zn Cu e - Relative potential Copper is more electronegative than Zinc When the two metals are connected electrically, current (electrons) will flow spontaneously from Zinc to Copper Zinc is oxidized; Copper is reduced Zinc is the anode; Copper is the cathode
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Cu2+ Zn2+ Zn0 Cu0 Zn 0 Zn 2+ + 2 e - Cu 2+ + 2 e - Cu 0 e - e - e - mV
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The Nernst Equation [Oxidized] ] Reduced [ log 303 . 2 [Oxidized] ] Reduced [ ln 0 0 nF RT E nF RT E E - = - = Where E = Potential at temperature T E 0 = Standard electrode potential (25ºC, 1.0M ) R = Ideal gas constant F = Faraday’s constant n = number of electrons transferred
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Cu2+ Zn2+ Zn0 Cu0 Zn 0 Zn 2+ + 2 e - E = +(-)0.7628 V Cu 2+ + 2 e - Cu 0 E = +0.3402 V E mV
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Electromotive force E cell = E cathode + E lj - E anode E cell = E Cu(II),Cu + E lj – E Zn(II),Zn E cell = (+)0.340 + E lj (-)0.763 E cell = (+)1.103 + E lj G = - nFE cell
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Would the reaction occur in the opposite direction? E cell = E cathode + E lj - E anode E cell = E Zn(II) Zn + E lj – E Cu(II) Cu E cell = (-)0.763 + E lj (+)0.340 E cell = (-)1.103 + E lj
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How do we determine standard electrode potentials?
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2011 for the course MED 6566 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at University of Florida.

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Review_of_Analytical_Methods_2 - Review of Analytical...

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