glycolysis - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Robert J Cohen, Ph.D....

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CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Robert J Cohen, Ph.D. ARB-- R3-206B - 392-4050 Email: rjcohen@ufl.edu Office Hours: MTWF 3-4pm Web page: www.med.ufl.edu/biochem/rcohen/rcohen.html
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Readings in Lehninger, 5 th edition pages Overview: 485-488, 569-577 Glycolysis: 527-551, 584, 588-589 Gluconeogenesis: 551-558, 582-594 Glycogen: 246, 594-609 TCA Cycle: 615-638 Pentose Phosphate Shunt: 558-564 ETS: 707-722, 512-521 ATP synthesis: 723-737 ===============================
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Metabolite = Biological compound Catabolism: All the reactions concerned with breaking down compounds and generating and storing energy for the needs of the cell and organism. Energy = ATP. Anabolism: All the reactions concerned with the biosynthesis of complex compounds from simpler compounds.
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General Pathways of Metabolism -- Catabolism -- 1- Breakdown of macromolecules to building blocks -- generally hydrolytic protein polysaccharide lipid nucleic acids amino glucose, glycerol ribose, het acids other sugars fatty acids bases, phosphate -- no useable energy yield here- only building blocks obtained
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2- Breakdown of monomers to common intermediates amino glucose, glycerol, acids other sugars fatty acids pyruvate NH 4 + acetyl CoA citric acid cycle ETS/Ox Phos ATP CO 2 Oxidative processes-- produce ATP & NADH for energy
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3-Breakdown of intermediates to CO 2 and electrons is accomplished through a central oxidative pathway: the C itric Acid Cycle or TCA or the Krebs Cycle . This cycle leads to the production of ATP by processes called electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. ***********************************************************
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proteins polysaccharides lipids amino glucose, glycerol acids other sugars fatty acids NH 4 + pyruvate acetyl CoA Intermediates citric acid cycle CO 2 -- --
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, cont’d 1- utilization of critical Common Intermediates including components of TCA cycle to make building blocks 2- making building block requires energy = ATP 3- synthesis of macromolecules requires energy = ATP 4- note CO 2 not generally reused *****************************************
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Modes of Control- Regulation 1- Level of energy - if low, anabolism is unlikely or impossible 2- Level of substrates 3- Level of enzyme cofactors - lipoic acid, thiamine, NAD + , etc. 4- Amount of Enzymes- a) quantity - repression or induction of expression of information in DNA
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b) activity - may have inactive or less active states, allosteric enzymes have activators(+) or inhibitors(-) Example: feedback control-build-up of final product inhibits enzyme - Covalent modifications 5- Compartmentalization - Some enzymes and substrates restricted to certain organelles so as to make the substrate and enzyme available together in right place.
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6- Hormone control - Certain cells are targeted by hormones, which indirectly regulate cellular pathways. Definition: Hormones are small regulatory molecules synthesized elsewhere and delivered to target cells; they then regulate specific aspects of their metabolism.
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-- One type of hormone regulates metabolism by affecting gene expression , e.g., steroids.
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2011 for the course BCH 4024 taught by Professor Allison during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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glycolysis - CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM Robert J Cohen, Ph.D....

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