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Lipid Metabolism - Lipid Metabolism Lipid Subject...

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Lipid Metabolism Lipid Metabolism     Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry,  5th Edition Subject          Chapter     Reading   Lipid Structure & Chemistry (Review)  10      pp 343-350,                      355,359 Lipid Degradation       17     pp 647-665 Ketogenesis       17     pp 666-668 Fatty acid Synthesis       21     pp 805-817 Integration                     23  various Triglyceride/Phospholipid Biosynthesis 21    pp 820-831 Cholesterol/Steroid metabolism/       21      pp 831-845 Lipoproteins
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Lipid Classes Lipid Classes (Review) 1. Simple fatty acids      - saturated     -unsaturated 2. Mono, di- and triglyceride 3. Glycerolphospholipids     (phosphoglycerides) e.g. lecithin (phosphatidyl choline)  4. Sphingolipids 5. Steroids 6. Prostaglandins 7. Lipid Vitamins
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Lipid Catabolism Lipid Catabolism Triglyceride Glycerol  +  Fatty Acids Glycolysis Sat   Unsat   Odd     Fatty Acids ACETYL-CoA Propionyl- CoA Succinyl-CoA TCA HMG CoA Ketone Bodies CO 2 ACETYL-CoA
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Lipid Anabolism(Biosynthesis) Lipid Anabolism(Biosynthesis) Fatty acids Cholesterol ACETYL-CoA Prostaglandins Phospholipids     Triglycerides Sphingolipids HMG-CoA Steroids Bile Acids Vit D
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General Triglyceride Catabolism General Triglyceride Catabolism - Fatty acids in triglycerides (TG) are  the major source of  energy  in the body. TG are stored in adipocytes or are  found in dietary fat. - 40% of daily energy requirement of people in industrial  countries is met with TG. - Main tissues using fatty acids as energy source are  liver,  heart and resting skeletal muscle - A 70kg male has about 7 kg of lipid. A 65 kg female has  about 14 kg of lipid. This is adequate for about a  month  of starvation.
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-There are carbohydrate stores for only   about a day -Carbohydrate and protein yield about  4 kcal      energy/g, whereas, triglycerides yield about  9 kcal  of  energy/g     - Excess dietary  carbohydrate is converted  into TG - Two reasons for using fat as an energy storage form  are its high energy yield/g and since fat is very  hydrophobic, it can be stored in a  compact  form. 
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Utilization of Dietary Fats Utilization of Dietary Fats Bile salts and pancreatic lipases in the small intestines  lead to  breakdown  of dietary fats to fatty acids,  glycerol, mono- and diglycerides for absorption into  the intestine. These absorbed products are used to  re-synthesize   triglycerides (TG) in the intestinal cells and the TG  are then  distributed  to various tissues in the body by  lipoproteins. 
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Mobilization of Fats in Adipocytes (Fat Cells) Mobilization of Fats in Adipocytes (Fat Cells) -Within the fat cells in peripheral tissues, lipids are  stored in oil drops.
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