CH 301 - Chapter 12 part 2 Lecture Notes

CH 301 - Chapter 12 part 2 Lecture Notes - Now on to...

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Now on to quantum numbers…
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Quantum Numbers • PRINCIPAL: n energy level, the distance the orbital is from the nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4…) • ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) • MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; -1, 0, +1 for p; -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) • SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or -1/2)
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Review Atomic number = # electrons Electrons occupy orbitals defined by n, l , m Each orbital can hold two electrons Orbitals Æ diffuse electron cloud “lower energy electron” Æ closer to nucleus Outer electrons: “valence” most reactive
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The principal quantum number has the symbol n. n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . ..... shells (n = K, L, M, N, . ..... ) The electron s energy depends principally on n . Quantum Numbers 1 2 3
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Quantum Numbers • The angular momentum quantum number has the symbol l . l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . ...... (n-1) l = s, p, d, f, g, h, . ...... (n-1) l tells us the shape of the orbitals. • These orbitals are the volume around the atom that the electrons occupy 90-95% of the time.
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Quantum Numbers • The symbol for the magnetic quantum number is m l , representing the spatial orientation. m l = - l , (- l + 1), (- l +2), . ....0, . ...... , ( l -2), ( l -1), l •I f l = 0 (or an s orbital), then m l = 0. f l = 1 (or a p orbital), then m l = -1,0,+1. y z
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•I f l = 2 (or a d orbital), then m l = -2,-1,0,+1,+2. f l = 3 (or an f orbital), then m l = -3,-2,- 1,0,+1,+2, +3. • Theoretically, this series continues on to g,h,i, etc
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Spin quantum number The last quantum number is the spin quantum number which has the symbol m s . The spin quantum number only has two possible values. m s = +1/2 or -1/2
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Spin of electron
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• Spin quantum number effects: – Every orbital can hold up to two electrons. • Consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. – The two electrons are designated as having – one spin up and one spin down • Spin describes the direction of the electron’s magnetic fields.
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Re-Cap: Quantum Numbers • PRINCIPAL: n energy level, distance from nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4…) • ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) • MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; -1, 0, +1 for p; -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) • SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or -1/2)
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2011 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '07 term at Oklahoma State.

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CH 301 - Chapter 12 part 2 Lecture Notes - Now on to...

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