CH 301 - Chapter 13-14 part 1 Lecture Notes

CH 301 - Chapter 13-14 part 1 Lecture Notes - CHAPTER 13...

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CHAPTER 13 Chemical Bonding Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms Formation of Ionic Compounds Formation of Covalent Bonds Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule Resonance Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Dipole Moments The Continuous Range of Bonding Types
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Two types of bonds: o Ionic bonding results from electrostatic attractions among ions, which are formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. o Covalent bonding results from sharing one or more electron pairs between two atoms. o ( Metallic bonding in Chapter 16!)
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• Sharing of electrons • Atoms with similar electronegativities • Atoms achieve pseudo-noble configurations • Octet rule to create Lewis dot structures • Transfer of electrons • Network of cations and anions • Metals (left) with non- metals (right) • Atoms achieve pseudo- noble configurations • Strong interactions due to large electrostatic forces (+/-) Covalent Ionic
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Covalent: “Sharing” Ionic: “Transfer”
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Electronegativities
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Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms A s p p p A
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H H 1s 1 . H .
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Lewis Dot Formulas Li Be B C N O F Ne .. He H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Ionic Bonding Formation of Ionic Compounds •A n ion is an atom or a group of atoms possessing a net electrical charge. Ions come in two basic types: 1. positive (+) ions or cations 2. negative (-) ions or anions ± Metals react with non-metals ± Cations bind to anions
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• Ionic compounds form extended three dimensional arrays of oppositely charged ions. • Ionic compounds have high melting points because the coulomb force , which holds ionic compounds together, is strong. Remember: formula units, not molecules!
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• Reaction of Group IA Metals with Group VIIA Nonmetals (s) 2(g) (s) o IA metal VIIA nometal 2 Na Cl 2 NaCl solid gas with an 842 C melting point +→ Why not write it as: Na + Cl Æ NaCl
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Formation of Ionic Compounds: electron configurations • electron configurations of Na and Cl. 2s 3s 3p Na ↑↓ Cl ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ These atoms form ions with these configurations : Na + ↑↓ same configuration as [Ne] Cl - ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ same configuration as [Ar]
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