ECON345 Essay 2.docx - Emma Gallagher ECON345 Essay 2...

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Emma Gallagher ECON345Essay 2Introduction The Chinese economy has undergone immense change & structural reform since the early 19thcentury. It progressed from an agrarian society to a communist state under Mao Zedong. Zedong’s China experienced both economic growth and disaster. Starting in 1978, Deng began slowly restructuring the economy, turning it into a “socialist market economy”. These market reforms laid the foundations for the huge surge in productivity and economic growth under Hu Jintao. Under Hu, China continued to integrate into the global economy and since then has adopted a gradual evolutional approach. Since the transition from centrally planned to market economy began, China has become the fastest growing country in the world. The Communist RevolutionPrior to the Communist Revolution in 1949, China was a divided & war-ravaged country. In the late 19thcentury the Manchu empire was forced to open its doors to international trade & subsequently exploitation by the West. By 1912, the imperial dynasty had become so discredited that 14 provinces declared against the dynasty. Revolutionist SunYat-sen, who had recently returned to China, was elected president. In rapid succession anarmistice was reached, the boy emperor was forced to abdicate, & the government was transferred to the people’s representatives. To unify the country, Sun gave up the presidency & Yuan was chosen in his place – The Republic of China was born. In 1915, Yuan declared himself emperor of China leading to many provinces declaring themselves as independent. Consequently, Yuan abdicated in 1916 & China declined into a period of violence & warlordism. In the meantime, Japanese aggression had grown, & culminated in the staged Mukden incident which set the pretext for Japan to invade Manchuria (1931). Soon after, the Japanese army began to expand their control of northern Manchuria. At the same time, Chinese communist & nationalist armies were engaging in open battle in major cities (Chapman, 2002). The old communist method of promoting their cause via battle proved unsuccessful & the impending defeat saw the rise of younger leaders within the communist party, one of them being Mao. Mao transformed the communist strategy & concentrated on winning the support from the peasant masses which made up over 80% of the population. Thenew strategy of guerrilla warfare was far more successful (Chapman, 2002). The rising tide ofChinese nationalism became intolerable to Imperial Japan & this anger climaxed with the 1
Emma Gallagher ECON345Essay 2Marco Polo Bridge incident of 1937. It forced communists & nationalists to suspend their operations against one another & focus on fighting Japan (Chapman, 2002). The Second Sino-Japanese War lasted from 1937 to 1945 & according to Hsiung & Levine (1992) the Chinese Communist Party may never had come to power if it weren’t for Japan’s war in China.

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