Basic week_04 Physics2 Fall 2010

Basic week_04 Physics2 Fall 2010 - TonightsTopics s (part2...

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Tonight’s Topics Primary effects of pressure (part 2)  Problems of ascent / air expansion problems  Buoyancy / “Archimedes Principle”  Scuba Equipment  Cylinders, Valves, Regulators  Diving instruments  Buoyancy systems  Weighting systems Underwater Communications  This week in the pool 
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Diving Physics Boyle’s Law (part 2)  Air Expansion Problems  Alternobaric vertigo  Sinus blocks Lung rupture problems Archimedes’ Principle Buoyancy
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Describe how decreasing outside pressure affects closed  air spaces in our body on ascent. State the different types of lung injuries and how to  prevent them. Describe the concept of buoyancy and how it affects us  underwater. Performance:    By the end of the lesson you will be able to :
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Key Points From Last Week Atmospheric Pressure = 1 ata = 14.7 psi = 1.013 bar =  etc. Fresh water      vs.     seawater  62.4 lbs./cu.ft.  vs.      64 lbs./cu.ft. 1 kg/L              vs.      1.025 kg/L Pressure increases underwater 1 ata = 33 fsw = 34 ffw = 10.08 msw = 10.33 mfw (1 bar = 10.19 mfw = 9.95 msw) Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1  = P 2 V 2
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Problems of Ascent Blocks Any closed air space will be a problem As pressure outside decreases, volume  inside will try to increase and cause pressure Unequal ear clearing Alternobaric vertigo Congested sinuses Holding your breath during ascent      Lung rupture injury         a.k.a. Lung “over-expansion” injury
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Your Lungs Your lungs are not two baloons  at the end of pipes. They are more like a tree upside  down--or a stalk of broccoli. At the end of all the branching  are the “alveoli ” — tiny air sacs  where gas exchange occurs. The alveoli have a lot of surface  area for gas transfer to and from  your blood. But, the alveoli walls are also  very thin.
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Lung Rupture Injuries If you hold your breath on ascent,  you can rupture the alveolar walls  and allow air to escape. There are four general types of  lung rupture injuries.  Pneumothorax: Collapsed lung Mediastinal Emphysema: Air  next to heart Subcutaneous Emphysema: Air  under skin Air embolism: Bubbles in blood Scuba Rule Number One: Breathe  continuously; don’t hold your  breath.
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If you suffer an air embolism, you would be treated in a  recompression or hyperbaric chamber. You do not go back underwater to try to relieve symptoms.
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Basic week_04 Physics2 Fall 2010 - TonightsTopics s (part2...

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