Paper-Lecture4 - Effects of Form of the Diet on Anatomical,...

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1998 J Dairy Sci 81:1946–1955 1946 Received November 12, 1996. Accepted February 23, 1998. 1 Contribution 92-550-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experi- ment Station. 2 Corresponding author. Effects of Form of the Diet on Anatomical, Microbial, and Fermentative Development of the Rumen of Neonatal Calves 1 A. A. BEHARKA,* T. G. NAGARAJA,* ,2 J. L. MORRILL,* G. A. KENNEDY, ² and R. D. KLEMM *Department of Animal Sciences, ² Department of Diagnostic Medicine, and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506-1600 ABSTRACT Eight neonatal, Holstein bull calves were paired by birth date and birth weight and randomly assigned to either a finely ground or unground control diet (chopped hay and rolled grain) to study the effects of the physical form of the diet on anatomical, microbial, and fermentative development of the rumen. The diets varied in particle size but were identical in composition (25% alfalfa hay and 75% grain mix). Calves were fed milk at 8% of birth weight daily until weaning. Feed intake was equalized for each pair of calves. Ruminal fluid samples were collected from ruminal cannulas to determine pH, fermentation products, and buffering capacity and to enumerate bacteria. Calves were slaughtered at 10 wk of age, and weights of the full and empty reticulorumen, abomasum, and omasum were recorded. Ruminal tis- sue samples were taken to assess papillary develop- ment by morphometric measurements. Calves had similar body weights at wk 10. Ruminal pH was affected by age and was lower for calves fed the ground diet. Total anaerobic bacterial counts were not affected by the physical form of the diet; however, calves fed the ground diet had lower numbers of cellulolytic bacteria and higher numbers of amylolytic bacteria than did calves fed the unground diet. Physi- cal form of the diet did not affect the weights of the reticulorumen whether full or empty. However, calves fed the ground diet had heavier omasum weights, both full and empty. Physical form of the diet affected papillary size and shape but did not influence the muscle thickness of the rumen. Results indicated that the physical form of the diet had a significant in- fluence on the anatomical and microbial development of the forestomach and, therefore, might influence future performance. ( Key words : calves, form of the diet, ruminal de- velopment, papillae) INTRODUCTION Development of the neonatal calf into a functioning ruminant involves a number of anatomical and phys- iological changes of the forestomach. Although the forestomach develops innately, age alone has little effect on ruminal papillary development (10, 29, 30). Normal development of ruminal papillae is the result of microbial fermentation products (mainly butyrate and propionate) and physical stimulation (9, 19, 26).
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course ANS 5446 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Paper-Lecture4 - Effects of Form of the Diet on Anatomical,...

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