lecture2 - ECE2984 Lecture2:...

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ECE 2984 cture 2: Lecture 2: HISTORY OF SPACE SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION Joseph Baker (ECE Dept) Lecture 2: History ECE 2984:Exploration of Space
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Earliest Space Scientists Aristotle (b384 BC): Earth centered Universe “ hrystalline heres” Chrystalline Spheres Sublunar (imperfect) versus Superlunar (perfect) realm ristarchos ~200 BC) First attempt to measure Earth n distance Aristarchos ( 200 BC) First attempt to measure Earth Sun distance Ptolemy (b90AD): Earth centered Universe Complex combination of circles First predictive capability for planetary motion Arabic Middle Ages: Keeping the flame of knowledge alive Increasing use of astrolabe instrument for navigation Development of astronomical tables dvances in number theory and trigonometry Joseph Baker (ECE Dept) Lecture 2: History ECE 2984:Exploration of Space Advances in number theory and trigonometry
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European Renaissance Copernicus (b1473): Heliocentric Universe n at the center of the universe Sun at the center of the universe Simpler more symmetric (logical) model Explained retrograde motion of planets Introduced concept of Earth rotation Rejected as appropriate model for reality But widely used for planetary calculations Tycho Brae (b1546): Geo Heliocentric Universe oon rotates about the Earth Moon rotates about the Earth But Earth and planets rotate about the Sun Good instrumentalist and prolific collector of data t l t th ti ! Joseph Baker (ECE Dept) Lecture 2: History ECE 2984:Exploration of Space But lousy at mathematics!
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European Renaissance Kepler (b 1571): Elliptical Orbits ired by Brahe to explain observations of Mars motion Hired by Brahe to explain observations of Mars motion Developed three laws of planetary motion Published a story about space travel Galileo (b1564): Observational Space Science Refined the design of the telescope First observations of sun spots and mountains on Moon First discovery of moons around other planets onfirmed that stars are really, really far away Confirmed that stars are really, really far away Introduced the concept of “frame of reference” Introduced the concept of “circular inertia” Joseph Baker (ECE Dept) Lecture 2: History ECE 2984:Exploration of Space Confirmed that gravitational acceleration is a constant
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Kepler’s Laws RST W he rbits f e lanets e FIRST LAW: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus. SECOND LAW: T h el i n ej o i n i n gt h e planet to the sun sweeps out equal area qual mes in equal times. THIRD LAW: The square of the orbital period is directly proportional to the cube of the mean or average distance om e n e lanet Joseph Baker (ECE Dept) Lecture 2: History ECE 2984:Exploration of Space from the sun to the planet.
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From Newton to Einstein Isaac Newton (1642 1727): Classical Mechanics vented calculus and developed law of Gravity Invented calculus and developed law of Gravity Developed three laws of motion
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course ENGE 1114 taught by Professor Twknott during the Fall '06 term at Virginia Tech.

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lecture2 - ECE2984 Lecture2:...

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