Lecture6-3notes

Lecture6-3notes - Kidney/Digestion Oct. 8 Measuring kidney...

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Kidney/Digestion Oct. 8
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Measuring kidney function Inject blood with substance neither secreted nor absorbed by nephron Measure rate of urine flow: volume/time Measure concentration in plasma and in urine: mol/volume C urine >C plasma : why?
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Measuring kidney function Inject with substance neither secreted nor absorbed C urine >C plasma If C urine = 100 x C plasma , then volume of original filtrate = ? x volume of urine. What percent of water has been reabsorbed? What happens to water absorbed?
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Measuring GFR C urine >C plasma GFR/urine flow = C urine /C plasma , and GFR = urine flow x C urine /C plasma Example: C urine = 100 x C plasma GFR = 100 x urine flow
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Overall kidney function GFR/urine flow = C urine /C plasma Once GFR known, look at other substances, see how the kidney treats them If C urine /C plasma > GFR/urine flow, substance is secreted into urine (e.g., epinephrine) If C urine /C plasma < GFR/urine flow, substance is absorbed from urine (e.g., glucose) (or was not effectively filtered at glomerulus)
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Excretion of a substance Excretion: how much of a substance is removed from the body per unit time urine flow rate x C urine volume time -1 x moles vol -1 = moles time -1 Clearance: volume of blood effectively cleared of solute per unit time urine flow rate x C urine /C blood volume time -1 x moles vol -1 / moles vol -1 = volume time -1 E
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Digestion Obtain food Capture: carnivores (& omnivores) Browse/graze: carnivores/omnivores/detritivores Filter feed: filter feeders Suck/lick: fluid feeders Cooperate: symbiosis with primary producers Corals: coral/photosynthetic algae Thermal vent worms: worms/chemosynthetic bacteria
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Digestion Functional components Obtain food Break down food Physical Hands/claws Mouth: chew Stomach: grind
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Digestion Functional components Obtain food Break down food Physical Chemical Alkaline hydrolysis: mouth Acid hydrolysis: stomach
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Digestion Functional components Obtain food Break down food Physical Chemical Enzymatic Amylase: mouth Pepsin: stomach Many enzymes in intestine
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Digestion Functional components Obtain food Break down food Physical Chemical Enzymatic Absorption Nutrients: small intestine Water: small and large intestine
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Digestion Functional components Anatomical components. Digestive tract = gut Sherwood Klandorf Yancey Fig. 14-1
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Digestion Head gut: mouth, oral cavity, buccal cavity Maceration Chewing (mastication) Manipulation by tongue Sherwood Klandorf Yancey Fig. 14-1
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Digestion Head gut: mouth, oral cavity, buccal cavity Maceration Alkaline hydrolysis Sherwood Klandorf Yancey Fig. 14-1
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Buccal cavity Maceration Alkaline hydrolysis Saliva secreted by salivary gland Exocrine gland (review secretory epithelia) Exocrine because direct connection to mouth Secretion controlled by autonomous nervous system (Fig. 14-6) Many components in saliva: see pp. 621-622 Mucous: Lubricate passage HCO 3 - : makes alkaline
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Lecture6-3notes - Kidney/Digestion Oct. 8 Measuring kidney...

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