korean politics 133j

korean politics 133j - KOREAN POLITICS 133J 1 I Historical...

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KOREAN POLITICS 133J I. Historical Overview of Korean Politics and Political Economy March 29. An Introduction to the Course o Why are we interested in Korea/Korean Politics? o Korean history – 38 th parallel, Korean war; North and South Korea o Successful in both econ dev and democracy Growth with equity – relatively equal income distribution GDP per capita IT industry competitiveness – second in the world Goldman Sachs – Korea will have world’s second highest per capita income by 2050 trailing only the US o A fully functioning modern democracy A success story among new democracies Third wave of democracies: fragile Democratic consolidation requires “40 years of consecutive democracy?” But South Korea, since 1987 o Transfer of power to opposition through election (1997, 2007) Pass 2 turnover test by Samuel Huntington; pass liberal to conservative o No attempted coup – usually happens in young democracies; South Korea have strong military but not attempt coup o Democratic performance: security, growth Korea’s polity score, 1948-2007; -10 authoritarian, +10 democratic 1972-1987 extreme authoritarian, before 1972 – elect democracy; formerly institutions 1961-63 military coup by Park Chunghee; president in 1963 and election to 1972 Student revolution in 1960 – overthrow President Syngman From beginning of S. Korea – had democratic institutions but continuous struggle o Not a small, ignorable country any more Shrimp between whales World’s largest 11-13 th largest economy G-20, G-7(?) Unified Korea? o Unfinished cold war Technically still at war (armistice w/o peace treaty) Prospect for peaceful unification? North Korea’s nuclear issue Special relationship between the US and Korea = strong alliance o Next class: Overview of Political and Economic Development, 1945-2010 o o S Korea in comparison to Taiwan and the Philippines o North, Wallis and Weingast (2009), LAO vs. OAO o Trends of GNP per capita of Two Koreas o Fierce competition o Gap grew and ratio of income = 15x difference now, but initially after war, N Korea was better but declined 1 Korea's Polity Score, 1948-2007 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 1948 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
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KOREAN POLITICS 133J o o 1960 Philippines had increased income and education to Korea/Taiwan but after democratic transition in 1987, big difference – performance increase in Taiwan/Korea while Philippines remain the same o NWW (2009) A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History o Limited access order (LAO, natural state): control violence by creating rents by “limiting access” o Three types of LAOs: fragile, basic, mature o Open access order (OAO): access to economic, political and social organizations and freedom to form
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korean politics 133j - KOREAN POLITICS 133J 1 I Historical...

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