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Unformatted text preview: Music 106 Info Music 106 Info Rob Sabino rlsabino@ucdavis.edu 530 848 7148 Office hours –by appointment David Verbuc­ dverbuc@ucdavis.edu Listening Site ­ http://listening.ucdavis.edu Goals of music 106 Goals of music 106 develop your ears demystify musical ability hear great music …but only a smattering Explore the social, political, racial, and Explore cultural influences that created rock cultural Analyzing Rock Analyzing Rock What to listen for Lyrics­ Verse and refrain? Just verses… changes to lyrics, relation of inst to vocals Instruments(50’s)­piano, guitar, bass guitar or standup, drums, sax Rhythm­ drum pattern, rhythm of other inst. The rhythmic interaction of the instruments Harmonic plan (lots of chords, few, one?…with what frequency?) Relation to other songs The whole enchilada The whole enchilada (subdivisions of rock music) Blues…Rhythm and blues…Rockabilly…Rock and Roll…Skiffle…Soul…Surf music…Bubble gum… Pop…Blues­rock…Motown…Jazz­rock…Folk rock…Classical­rock…Acid­rock…Reggae…Heavy Metal…Disco…Punk New Age…New Wave… Thrashmetal…Ska Alternative…Rave…Electro­pop…Rap…House Industrial…Grunge…Techno­Hop…World Music Rock (The Music of Rebellion) Rock Blues…Ryhthm and blues…Rockabilly…Rock and Roll…Skiffle…Soul…Surf music…Bubble gum…Pop…Blues­rock…Motown…Jazz­rock… Folk rock…Classical­rock…Acid­rock… Reggae…Heavy Metal…Disco…Punk NewAge… NewWave…Thrashmetal…Ska Alternative…Rave…Electro­pop…Rap…House Industrial…Grunge…Techno­Hop…World Music The major scale The major scale I ­ II ­ III ­ IV ­ V ­ VI ­ VII ­ VIII 1 ­ 2 ­ 3 ­ 4 ­ 5 ­ 6 ­ 7 ­ 8 N ­ W ­ W ­ H­ W ­ W­ W ­ H C­ D ­ E ­ F ­ G ­ A ­ B ­ C Pentatonic scale (mode) ­ N ­ W ½ ­ W ­ W ­ W ½ C ­ Eb ­ F ­ G ­ Bb found independently in most cultures ­ see Paul Robeson Blues scale­ N ­ W1/2 ­ W ­ H ­ H ­ W1/2 ­ W C ­ Eb ­ F ­ Gb ­ G ­ Bb ­ C 12 bar blues progressions 12 bar blues progressions Bars 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I ­ IV ­ I ­ I ­IV­ IV ­ I ­ I ­ V ­ IV­ I ­ I I ­ I ­ I ­ I­IV­ IV ­ I ­ I ­ V ­ IV ­I ­ I I ­ I ­ I ­ I­IV­ IV ­ I ­ I ­ V ­ V ­I ­ I I ­ I ­ I ­ I­ IV­ IV ­ I ­ I ­ V ­ IV ­I,IV­I,V And a whole lotta variations Types of Blues Types of Blues Rural Delta Blues ­ Mississippi (acoustic) Louisiana Blues ­ influenced country and Zydeco (rural/urban) Memphis Blues ­ W.C Handy, B.B. King (from the delta) Types of Blues Types of Blues Urban Woman’s Blues ­ dominated the 20’s­ Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey Jump Blues ­ Jazz and big bands of the 30’s and 40’s­ Louie Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Rhythm and Blues­ Chicago…amplified Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, Willie Dixon, Bo Diddley Blues Rock ­ Stones, Cream, Led Zeppelin Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists GARFIELD AKERS ALGERNON "Texas" ALEXANDER PINK ANDERSON AMADÉ ARDOIN JAMES "Kokomo" ARNOLD KID BAILEY RAYMOND BARROW BEALE STREET SHEIKS ED BELL (Barefoot Bill/Sluefoot Joe) FRANCIS "Scrapper" BLACKWELL ARTHUR "Blind" BLAKE EUBIE BLAKE LUCILLE BOGAN WILLIAM "Memphis Willie B" BORUM CALDWELL "Mississippi" BRACEY ISHMON BRACEY WILLIAM LEE CONLEY "Big Bill" BROONZY WILLIE BROWN JOE CALLICOT MOSE CANDLER GUS CANNON LEROY CARR Bo Carter [ARMENTER CHATMON] "Doctor" PETER CLAYTON JAYBIRD COLEMAN SAM COLLINS IDA COX ARTHUR "Big Boy" CRUDUP "Blind" TEDDY DARBY Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists REVEREND GARY DAVIS "Blind" JOHN DAVIS MATTIE DELANEY "Blind" SIMMIE DOOLEY THOMAS ANDREW DORSEY "Champion" JACK DUPREE DAVE "Honeyboy" EDWARDS "Sleepy" JOHN ESTES WILL EZELL CANRAY FONTENOT ♫ "Blind Boy Fuller" [FULTON ALLEN] JESSE FULLER BILL GAITHER "Blind" LEROY GARNETT CLIFFORD "Grandpappy" GIBSON Jazz [WILLIAM McKINLEY] GILLUM "Blind" ROOSEVELT GRAVES LEON T "Archibald" GROSS WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER HANDY HARLEM HAMFATS WILLIAM HARRIS WALTER "Buddy Boy" HAWKINS LUCILLE HEGAMIN ROBERT "Barbeque Bob" HICKS "Laughing" CHARLEY HICKS ("Lincoln") ANDREW "Smokey" HOGG Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists King Solomon Hill [JOE HOLMES] SAM "Lightnin" HOPKINS JOSHUA "Peg Leg" HOWELL EDDIE JAMES "Son" HOUSE "Mississippi" JOHN HURT Papa Charlie Jackson [CHARLIE CARTER] JIM JACKSON MAHALIA JACKSON ELMORE JAMES SKIP JAMES "Blind" LEMON JEFFERSON ALONZO "Lonnie" JOHNSON ROBERT JOHNSON TOMMY JOHNSON "Blind" WILLIE JOHNSON DENNIS "Little Hat" JONES CHARLEY JORDAN FREDDIE KEPPARD LOTTIE KIMBROUGH RUBIN LACEY Leadbelly [HUDDIE WILLIAM LEDBETTER] Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists NOAH LEWIS WALTER "Furry" LEWIS MANCE LIPSCOMB "Cripple" CLARENCE LOFTON MEMPHIS JUG BAND Memphis Minnie [LIZZIE DOUGLAS] TOMMY McCLENNAN Kansas JOE McCOY & Papa CHARLIE McCOY "Mississippi" FRED McDOWELL BROWNIE McGHEE JAY "Hootie" McSHANN "Blind" WILLIE McTELL "Big" MACEO MERRIWEATHER LIZZIE MILES MISSISSIPPI JOOK BAND MISSISSIPPI SHEIKS EURREAL "Little Brother" MONTGOMERY ALEX MOORE EUGENE "Buddy" MOSS ROMEO NELSON ISAIAH "Mississippi Moaner" NETTLES "Hambone" WILLIE NEWBORN Robert Nighthawk [Robert McCOLLUM] CHARLEY PATTON JOE WILLIE "Pinetop" PERKINS ARTHUR PETTIS ROBERT PETWAY Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists MA RAINEY Piano Red/DrFeelgood [WILLIE PERRYMAN] Tampa Red [HUDSON WHITTAKER] Blind Joe Reynolds [JOE SHEPPARD] WILL SHADE JOHNNY SHINES HENRY "Son" SIMS Bumble Bee Slim [AMOS EASTON] Lightnin' Slim [OTIS HICKS] Memphis Slim [PETER CHATMAN] HENRY SLOAN BESSIE SMITH CLARENCE "Pinetop" SMITH MAMIE SMITH J.T. "Funny Papa" SMITH VICTORIA SPIVEY FREDDIE SPRUELL HOUSTON STACKHOUSE FRANK STOKES SUNNYLAND SLIM ROOSEVELT SYKES THEODORE "Hound Dog" TAYLOR JOHNNY "Geechie" TEMPLE SONNY TERRY ELVIE THOMAS HENRY "Ragtime Texas" THOMAS JESSE "Babyface" THOMAS Pre World War II blues artists Pre World War II blues artists "Big" JOE TURNER B.K.L. "The Black Ace" TURNER OTHAR TURNER AARON "T­Bone" WALKER BEULAH "Sippie" WALLACE Washboard Sam [ROBERT BROWN] ISIDORE "Tuts" WASHINGTON CURLY WEAVER Peetie Wheatstraw [WILLIAM BUNCH] BUKKA WHITE JOSH WHITE JAMES "Boddle it" WIGGINS GEESHIE WILEY Rev. ROBERT WILKINS GEORGE "Bullet" WILLIAMS JABO WILLIAMS "Big" JOE WILLIAMS "Homesick" JAMES WILLIAMSON JOHN LEE "Sonny Boy" WILLIAMSON Sonny Boy Williamson [ALECK RICE MILLER] OSCAR "Buddy" WOODS Copyright 2006 the blues pages The Great Robert Johnson ­1911­38 The Great Robert Johnson ­1911­38 The biggest influence on the blues­rockers (Clapton, Page, Jeff Beck, Keith Richards) Only had 29 songs (41 recordings) Sold his soul to the devil (crossroads) Poisoned in Miss. (probably by a jealous husband) Unique style of incorporating a bassline on the bottom strings of his guitar Blues covers by Cream Blues covers by Cream Fresh Cream (1966) ”Cat’s Squirrel”­Doc Ross “I’m so Glad”­Skip James “From Four ‘Til Late” ­Robert Johnson “Rollin’ and Tumblin’” ­ attr. Muddy Waters “Spoonful” ­Charlie Patton Disraeli Gears (1967) “Outside Woman Blues” Wheels of Fire (1968) “ Sittin’ on Top of the World” Chatman and Jacobs recorded by Howlin Wolf “Crossroads” Robert Johnson (Cross Road Blues) “Traintime” ­ Forest City Joe Pugh “Born Under a Bad Sign” ­Booker T. Jones and William Bell Blues covers by Cream pt.2 Blues covers by Cream pt.2 Top of the Milk (1968) “Steppin’ Out” ­ James Bracken “Big Black Woman Blues”­ Tommy Johnson “Big Fat Mama Blues) Early Cream (1977) “Louise” ­ Howlin’ Wolf “Five Long Years” ­Ike Turner “The First Time I Met the Blues”­ Little Brother Montgomery “Stormy Monday” ­ John Lee Hooker “ Too Much Monkey Business”­Chuck Berry From David Headlam, “ Blues Transformations in the Music of Cream”, in Understanding Rock: Essays in Musical Analysis, ed. John Covach and Graeme Boone (New York,1997) Societal changes Societal changes Television ­1953…27 million sets Radio ­ “The Moondog Rock and Roll House Party” ­Alan Freed ­1951 1952 ­53 ­ Moondog Coronation Ball(s)­Cleveland Car and transistor radios ­standard equipment by the mid 50’s More leisure time and affluence Integration­ no more ‘white spectator tickets” or white nights at black clubs… integrated concerts relatively safe for blacks Race and racist elements Race and racist elements 1956­ a spokesman for the White Citizens Council of Birmingham, Alabama said “…the basic heavy beat music of the Negroes”­ appealed to “the base in man, brings out animalism and vulgarity” and, most important, represented a “plot to mongrelize America” April 1956 ­ people beat Nat King Cole on stage in Birmingham 1 .From Rockin’ in Time; A Social History of Rock and Roll, David Szatmary (c.2000 Prentice Hall) 1 Little Richard Little Richard b. 1932 ­ Richard Penniman “Long Tall Sally”, “Tutti Fruitti” Born in Macon, Georgia like Otis Redding, and James Brown Rockabilly Rockabilly Sun Records­ Memphis, Tennessee Owner and producer­Sam Phillips “The Million Dollar Quartet” Carl Perkins Jerry Lee Lewis Johnny Cash Elvis Presley March 1956 Roy Orbison (“Only the Lonely”,”Crying”,Oh,Pretty Woman” joined the Sun ranks Carl Perkins Carl Perkins b. April 9, 1932 near Tiptonville, Tennessee “Blue Suede Shoes” made famous by Elvis “Honey Don’t” recorded by the Beatles Born to sharecropper parents Jerry Lee Lewis Jerry Lee Lewis b.1935 in Ferriday, Louisiana “The Killer” Style was an outgrowth of “boogie­woogie” Songs­ “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On”,”Great Balls of fire” Played with cousins Jimmy Swaggert and Mickey Gilley Johnny Cash Johnny Cash b.1932 ­Kingland, Texas ­son of a sharecropper Songs ­ “I Walk The Line”, Folsom Prison Blues” ­The “man in black” The only early rock star to record with Rick Rubin­ a current rap producer Elvis Presley Elvis Presley “The King” b. Jan. 8,1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi Died in 1977 Songs ­ “Don’t Be Cruel”, “Hound Dog”, “Love Me Tender”, “All Shook Up” ,”Jailhouse Rock”, “Blue Suede Shoes” Recorded 5 singles with Sun Records then went to RCA. He shocked adults with his overt sexuality. (not seen in repressed white folks) Elvis Presley Elvis Presley Elvis Presley is the best selling solo artist In U.S. History Elvis charted more songs on Billboard's Hot 100 than any other artist. (149) Elvis spent more weeks at the top of the charts than any other artist. (80) Elvis had the greatest number of consecutive #1 hits. (10) Elvis is second only to the Beatles in total of #1 hits. (18) According to the RIAA: Elvis is #2 for overall album sales (117.5 million) (The Beatles sold 166.5 million; Led Zepplin, 106 million) Elvis has the most Multi­Plaintum albums (25) (The Beatles have 24; Led Zepplin and Barbra Streisand have 13) Elvis has more Platinum albums than any other artist (55) (The Beatles have 37; Barbra Streisand has 30) Elvis has the most Plaintum singles (27) Elvis has more Gold albums than any other artist (97) (Barbra Streisand has 51; The Beatles have 42) Elvis has the most Gold singles (24) Fifties Web.Copyright 1996­2007. Candace Rich More Elvis More Elvis Manager ­ Col. Tom Parker Shrewd businessman who sold Elvis to other show business people not directly to the public. 83% of the TV viewing population saw him the first time on The Ed Sullivan Show on CBS on Sept.9,1956 Buddy Holly Buddy Holly b. 1936 nee. Charles Holley in Lubbock, Texas Originally more bluegrass oriented “That’ll Be the Day”, “Peggy Sue”, “Not Fade Away” Feb. 2, 1959 ­The day the music died Chuck Berry Chuck Berry b. 1926 in St. Louis Missouri The most influential instrumentalist and songwriter “Johnny B. Goode“ ­ 101 covers," Roll Over Beethoven” ­ 73 covers, “Maybelline” ­ 62 covers, ”Sweet Little Sixteen” ­ 61, “Memphis, Tennessee” ­ 120 covers The Fifties The Fifties There were over 5000 record labels though four companies; RCA Victor, Columbia, Capitol and Decca accounted for 75% of the sales. Per capita income rose 82% in the decade of the fifties The GNP rose from $213 to $503 billion dollars. Dick Clark b. 1929 Dick Clark b. 1929 Studied advertising and radio at Syracuse University In 1956 hosted radio show ”Bandstand” “American Bandstand” premiered Aug. 5, 1957 It emphasized the audience as much as the music Launched many stars careers (Fabian, Frankie Avalon, Bobby Rydell, Chubby Checker) Escaped payola investigations: Alan Freed, “ What they call payola in the disc jockey business they call lobbying in Washington.” Don Kirshner Don Kirshner Son of a Bronx tailor Capitalized on new songwriters for the teen market Was located across from the Brill Building 1619 Broadway in NYC ; home of all the major publishers Aldon Publishing ­ Barry Mann & Cynthia Weil, Ellie Greenwich & Jeff Barry , Carole King & Gerry Goffin, Neil Sedaka Leiber and Stoller Leiber and Stoller Major songwriting duo “Hound Dog” Big Mama Thornton, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, Odetta, Sha­na­na, Uriah Heep, The Osmonds, Conway Twitty “Jailhouse Rock” Elvis, Jeff Beck, Johnny Cougar, Merle Haggard, Jerry Lee Lewis, ZZ Top, Johnny and Edgar Winter “Kansas City’, Little Willie Littlefield, Beatles, James Brown, Little Richard, Muddy Waters, Bill Haley and the Comets, Peggy Lee, Lou Rawls, Fats Domino, Herman and the Hermits, Freddy and the Dreamers, Everly Brothers, Pat Boone, Jan and Dean, Chubby Checker, Nashville All­Stars, Johnny Rivers “Love Me” Willie and Ruth, Elvis, Fats Domino, The Searchers, Pat Boone “Love Potion # 9” The Clovers, The Coasters, Sam the Sham and the Pharoahs, The Ventures, Gary Lewis and The Playboys Leiber and Stoller (cont.) Leiber and Stoller (cont.) “On Broadway” The Drifters, Bobby Darin, The Coasters, Lou Rawls, The Lettermen “Poison Ivy” ­ The Coasters, Redbone, The Rolling Stones “Riot In Cell Block Nine” The robins, Commander Cody, The Beach Boys “Searchin’” The Coasters, McCoy Tyner, Jim Croce, Johnny Rivers “Spanish Harlem” Ben E. King, The Crusaders, Leon Russell, Aretha Franklin, Mamas and the Papas, Jay and the Americans, Gene Mc Daniels, Percy Faith “Stand By Me” Ben E. King, Otis Redding, Ry Cooder, John Lennon, Sonny and Cher, Ike and Tina Turner, Jay and the Americans “Yakity­yak” , The Coasters, Sha­na­na, Sam the Sham And a whole bunch of other Elvis songs I ­ VI ­ II(IV) ­ V songs I ­ VI ­ II(IV) ­ V songs “Heart and Soul” bass line “Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight”­ The Spaniels ”Sh­Boom (Life Could Be a Dream) “Earth Angel” ­ Penguins, Crew Cuts “Oh, What a Night” ­ Dells “Eddie My Love” ­ The Chordettes, Teen Queens, Fontane Sisters “Come Go With Me” ­ Del Vikings “ Over the Mountain, Across the Sea” ­ Johnnie and Joe “Last Night” ­ Buddy Holly “Silhouettes” ­ Rays, Diamonds “Lollipop” ­ Chordettes “Book Of Love” ­ Monotones “All I Have To Do Is Dream” ­ The Everly Brothers “Tears on My Pillow” ­ Little Anthony and the Imperials “Stay” ­ Maurice Williams and the Zodiacs “A Teenager In Love” ­ Dion and the Belmonts “This Magic Moment” ­ Drifters, Jay and the Americans “Please Mr. Postman” ­ The Marvelettes, The Beatles “Duke of Earl” ­ Gene Chandler …….And a zillion more Phil Spector Phil Spector b.1939 in the Bronx Pioneered “wall of sound” production technique From Early R&R with The Ronettes (married Ronnie) and The Righteous Brothers to John Lennon and The Beatles Long history of bizarre behavior Listened to Wagner and patterned his production technique after him. In Los Angeles his musicians were known as the “Wrecking Crew” Hal Blaine, Carol Kaye, Leon Russell and Glen Campbell Girl Groups Girl Groups The Breakaways ­ The Orchids ­ Patience and Prudence ­ Betty Everett ­ The Sapphires ­ The Goodies ­ The Vernon Girls ­ La Belle (The Bluebelles) ­ The Hearts ­ Lulu and the Lovers ­ The Shamettes ­ The Honeys ­ The Ikettes ­ Candy and the Kisses ­ Rosie and the Originals ­ The Donays ­ The Sherrys ­ Cookies ­ The Quintones ­ The Dixiecups ­ The Toys ­ The Secrets ­ The Pixies Three ­ The Chantels ­ Dodie Stevens ­ Teen Queens ­ Ponytails ­ The Crystals ­ Kathy Young and the Innocents ­ The Velvettes ­ Patty and the Emblems ­ Ad­Libs ­ The Paris Sisters ­ The Apollas ­ The Bouquets ­ The Honeybees ­ The Butterflies ­ The Raindrops ­ The Sensations ­ The Jellybeans ­ The Starlets ­ The Chiffons ­ The Shirelles ­ The Exciters ­ The Bonnie Sisters ­ The Dixiebelles ­ The Royalettes ­ The Blossoms ­ The Deltairs ­ Little Eve ­ The Murmaids ­ The Ronettes ­ Reparata and The Delrons ­ Jaynetts ­ The Bobbettes ­ The Shangi­ Las On girl groups, see http://cybergrlzz.com/cg­girl­groups.htm The Shirelles The Shirelles Named for lead singer Shirley Owens Formed as 16­17 year olds at Passaic High School in 1958 Wrote their songs together Had a long career “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” 4 bar intro A ­ 8 + 8 A ­ 8 + 8 B (bridge) 8+8 A ­ 8 + 8 A ­ 8 + 8 What is the instrumentation? The Beach Boys and Surf Music The Beach Boys and Surf Music Brian Wilson b. 1942 in Hawthorne CA was the single driving force in the group Brothers Carl, Dennis, cousin Mike Love and friend Al Jardine completed the group Distinctive vocal blend and recording technique made them unique 36 top 40 hits including 4 #1’s Their influence far exceeded their sales. Folk Music and songs of protest Folk Music and songs of protest 1909 ­ The Little Red Songbook ­ written by the Wobblies, members of the International Workers of the World (IWW) ­ laid the foundation for 60’s protest songs It was compiled by Ralph Chaplin and the legendary Joe Hill who was later executed in Utah Woody Guthrie 1912­1967 ­ penned over 1000 songs ­ “This Land Is Your Land” Pete Seeger b.1919 and the Weavers ­ debuted at the Village Vanguard (NYC) in 1949 ­ “If I Had a Hammer”, “Good Night Irene” The Chad Mitchell Trio, Tom Paxton, Joan Baez, Phil Ochs were all major forces but the most commercially successful was Peter, Paul and Mary (1961)­ Puff, the Magic Dragon, Leaving on a Jet Plane (written by John Denver and their biggest hit) ...
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