7SimpleBuoyancy(1) - S=0, F o >0, Q o 0,J o )....

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Turbulent Flow and Transport 7 Buoyant Plumes, Thermals, etc. 7.1 Jets, plumes, forced plumes, thermals, etc. Stable and unstable atmospheres. 7.2 The Boussinesq approximation and the conditions for its applicability. 7.3 Integral equations for a steady, vertical plume or jet in a still ambient fluid. The entrainment approximation. The effect of the ambient atmosphere on thermal plumes and the physical significance of the atmospheric stratifications parameter S. The "top−hat" model and its relationship to Gaussian distribution parameters. The boundary conditions at x=0. Non−thermal buoyancy (e.g. bubbles in water). 7.4 Example: far−field solution for a non−buoyant jet ( S=0, F o 0, Q o 0, J o >0 ). Comparison with experiment. 7.5 Far−field solution for a thermal plume in a neutrally stable atmosphere (
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Unformatted text preview: S=0, F o >0, Q o 0,J o ). Comparison with experiment. 7.6 Farfield solution for a thermal plume in a stably stratified atmosphere ( S>0, F o >0, Q o 0, J o ). Comparison with Experiment. 7.7 Transient thermals rising in a still atmosphere: integral equations and solutions. 7.8 Plumes in a crosswind. References Morton, Taylor , & Turner . Proc. Roy. Soc. A , 234 (1956): 123 . Turner . Buoyancy Effects in Fluids . Cambridge : 165173 & 194200 , 1973. Chen & Rodi . " A Review of Experimental Data . ." Vertical Turbulent Buoyant Jets. Pergamon Press, 1980. Fay, "Buoyant Plumes and Wakes . " Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech . Vol. 5. 1973 List . "Turbulent Jets and Plumes . " Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. Vol.14 . 1982 . Rodi . Turbulent Buoyant Jets & Plumes . Pergamon Press, 1982....
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