accurate_ele_battery_model_chen - 504 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON...

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504 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 21, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 Accurate Electrical Battery Model Capable of Predicting Runtime and I–V Performance Min Chen, Student Member, IEEE, and Gabriel A. Rinc´on-Mora, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract —Low power dissipation and maximum battery run- time are crucial in portable electronics. With accurate and efFcient circuit and battery models in hand, circuit designers can predict and optimize battery runtime and circuit performance. In this pa- per, an accurate, intuitive, and comprehensive electrical battery model is proposed and implemented in a Cadence environment. This model accounts for all dynamic characteristics of the battery, from nonlinear open-circuit voltage, current-, temperature-, cy- cle number-, and storage time-dependent capacity to transient re- sponse. A simpliFed model neglecting the effects of self-discharge, cycle number, and temperature, which are nonconsequential in low-power Li-ion-supplied applications, is validated with exper- imental data on NiMH and polymer Li-ion batteries. Less than 0.4% runtime error and 30-mV maximum error voltage show that the proposed model predicts both the battery runtime and I–V performance accurately. The model can also be easily extended to other battery and power sourcing technologies. Index Terms —Batteries, cadence simulation, electrical model, I–V performance, nickel-metal hydride battery, polymer lithium- ion battery, runtime prediction, test system. I. INTRODUCTION E LECTROCHEMICAL batteries [1] are of great impor- tance in many electrical systems because the chemical en- ergy stored inside them can be converted into electrical energy and delivered to electrical systems, whenever and wherever en- ergy is needed. Although the popularity of portable electronics like cell phones, PDAs, digital cameras, and laptop comput- ers has propelled battery technologies, such as nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), and polymer Li-ion [2], those battery technologies cannot yet meet the progressive energy demands and size limitations of today’s portable electronics [3]. A primary concern in the design of portable electronics is how to minimize power dissipation and extend battery runtime [4]. Without circuit and battery models in hand, circuit designers can neither predict nor optimize either battery runtime or circuit performance. Although accurate and efFcient electrical models of circuits and systems at different levels of abstraction have been developed and also have been implemented in some elec- tronic design automation (EDA) tools, like in Cadence design systems, an accurate, intuitive, and comprehensive electrical battery model is not available, especially in circuit simulators, Manuscript received March 21, 2005; revised May 15, 2005. This work was supported by the Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education (SCEEE) development fund grants. Paper no. TEC-00114-2005. The authors are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineer-
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2011 for the course ELEC 6970 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Auburn University.

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accurate_ele_battery_model_chen - 504 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON...

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