Brewing Water

Brewing Water - Brewing Water Brewing Minerals in Water...

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Unformatted text preview: Brewing Water Brewing Minerals in Water Minerals Important contribution to beer flavor Important Water is 90%+ of beer Burton-on-Trent water is excellent for full Burton-on-Trent flavored pale ales flavored Munich water excellent for dark lagers Plzen water excellent for very light lagers Water Characteristics Water pH -log [H+] 0 (very acid) to 14 (very basic) Log scale, pH 5 has 10X more H+ than pH 6 Strong affect on enzyme activities, yeast Strong growth, and other chemical reactions growth, Water Characteristics Water Alkalinity Mainly measure of bicarbonate buffering Mainly capacity Alkalinity is reported as ppm (mg/L) calcium Alkalinity carbonate (CaCO3) carbonate More than 100ppm CaCO3 is considered alkaline and should be treated alkaline Water Characteristics Water Alkalinity Too much carbonate causes the water to be Too buffered, negatively affecting pH changes that are required during mashing & boiling to ensure good beer Water Characteristics Water Hardness Total measure of solids in water Total hardness reported usually as CaCO3 0-50ppm very soft 50-100ppm soft 100-200ppm medium soft 200-400ppm moderate hard 400-600ppm hard >600ppm very hard Water Characteristics Water Temporary Hardness Calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of Calcium, carbonate and bicarbonate Called temporary can be precipitated and Called removed by boiling removed Boiling water rich in calcium bicarbonate Boiling Ca(HCO3)2 --> CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 Ca(HCO3) Water Characteristics Water Permanent Hardness Cannot be changed by boiling Calcium and magnesium salts sulfates and Calcium chlorides chlorides Permanent hardness can increase rates of Permanent enzyme reactions enzyme Minerals in Brewing Minerals Calcium Ca++ Calcium reacts with phosphates, releasing [H+] Lowering of pH is necessary for optimum Lowering activity of amylases and proteases activity Polyphenols extracted less at lower pH Calcium Calcium Ca promotes rapid filtration, clear wort Lower extraction of astringent polyphenols Lower and coloring compounds and Helps with precipitation of proteins Helps (chillhaze lower) (chillhaze Helps with yeast flocculation Calcium Calcium Helps precipitate oxalic acid as calcium Helps oxalate oxalate Inadequate calcium can lead to oxalate- derived haze Want ratio of calcium to oxalate 4.5-10:1 Magnesium Magnesium Acts similarly to calcium but is more Acts soluble, less effect on wort pH soluble, Important for yeast metabolism Normally malt has adequate Mg, but if Normally high amounts of adjuncts are added, Mg addition to brewing water is advisable addition Sodium Sodium Contributes to perceived flavor and may Contributes enhance sweetness enhance 75-150ppm combined with chloride (not 75-150ppm sulfate) provides round smoothness sulfate) In presence of sulfate, Na can provide In harshness (high sulfate water should have low sodium) low Potassium Potassium K can provide a salty flavor Required for yeast growth but high levels Required (>10ppm) can inhibit yeast enzymes (>10ppm) Side note: ppm = mg/L Sulfate Sulfate Positively affects protein/starch degradation High sulfate levels result in poor extraction of High alpha acids alpha Can lead to dry, crisp palate but overuse Can results in harsh, salty, laxative character results Chloride Chloride Chloride and magnesium provide body, Chloride palate fullness and soft-sweet flavor palate Roundness provided by NaCl is suited for Roundness dark beers dark High levels provide flavor problems and High negatively affect yeast growth negatively Carbonate Carbonate Raise pH and negatively affect amylases, Raise color and filtration color Also prevent protein-tannin complexation Also and precipitation and Levels >50ppm can ruin light beer (harsh) Dark beers can stand more (dark malt Dark decreases pH) and 200ppm can be OK decreases Nitrate/Nitrite Nitrate/Nitrite Nitrate (NO3-1) and Nitrites (NO2-1) Nitrites indicate water contamination, Nitrites poisons yeast, reacts with tannins forming reddish color, can cause gushing, raise VDK levels VDK Minor Ions Minor High levels of iron provide metallic taste, High prevent amylase activity, negative effects on yeast should be <0.2ppm Copper can lead to oxidation problems Copper should be <0.1ppm Water Treatment Water Historically, breweries were built in areas Historically, having established consistent water supplies supplies Burton-on-Trent, Dortmund, Plzen, Vienna Traditional water treatment was simply Traditional calcium addition to precipitate bicarbinate to lower alkalinity to Water Treatment Water Modern brewers can adjust water salts to Modern provide any beer style they like provide pH adjustment, minerals adjustment, pH removing chlorine, removing particulates, microbiological control microbiological pH adjustment pH Boiling removes hydrogen from Boiling bicarbonate leaving carbonate, binds with calcium & precipitates calcium Lowers pH, precipitates CaCO3 Boiling to lower carbonates & pH only Boiling works well if carbonate is balanced with calcium calcium Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Boiling is expensive commercially Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) reacts Calcium with calcium bicarbonate and causes ppt as calcium carbonate as Many Munich brewers treat water with Many calcium hydroxide to ppt carbonate calcium Acidification Acidification Acidification is easy way to deal with Acidification alkalinity alkalinity Add acid (phosphoric, citric, lactic) Some recommend sulfuric or hydrochloric Some acids, but others prefer lactic or phosphoric acid phosphoric Mineral Salt Adjustment Mineral Add mineral salts based on what style of Add beer is produced beer Calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate Calcium (Epson salts), sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride chloride, Mineral Salt Adjustment Mineral Burton-on-Trent has high gypsum (calcium Burton-on-Trent sulfate) which adds dry edge, accentuates hop bitterness, lowers extraction of colors hop Too much calcium sulfate and you're Too making liquid Ex-Lax making Dechlorination Dechlorination Water is treated with chlorine often to Water sanitize it sanitize Boil water or 78 °C overnight removes Boil overnight chlorine chlorine Activated carbon filtration will remove Activated PCBs, chloramines, and pesticides PCBs, Carbon Filtration Carbon Carbon (activated) is hydrated and Carbon swollen in clean water swollen 10-15 minute contact time sufficient Can get activated carbon in premade filter Can cartridges (like Pur filters) cartridges Particulates Particulates Solid materials can be removed by Solid filtration through membrane filters filtration 5-10 micron ratings removes pretty much 5-10 all solids all Microbiological Control Microbiological Water for diluting wort requires disinfection UV irradiation is effective but requires UV short path short No residual kill potential Ozone or chlorine may be used Microbiological Control Microbiological Chlorine dioxide is relatively new oxidant Chlorine Does not form chlorophenols (medicinal Does nasty aroma) nasty ...
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