Adjuncts - Adjuncts Adjuncts Aduncts Aduncts Unmalted...

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Unformatted text preview: Adjuncts Adjuncts Aduncts Aduncts Unmalted grains corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, wheat Cheaper than malted barley, allow production of different beers Can have better colloidal stability, better chillproof quality, more brilliance Rice/Corn contribute basically no protein Adjuncts Adjuncts Change color, enhance foam stability, lower haze potential Europe adjunct may reach 10­30%, USA 40­50%, Africa 50­75% Adjunct Classification Adjunct Cereal adjuncts classified based on how they are used Added to cooker Added to mash tun Added to brew kettle COOKER MASH ADJUNCTS nongelatinized cereal products meal, grits, flour, starch Need separate cooker to properly gelatinize Cooker Mash Adjuncts Cooker Gelatinization temperature of cereals is higher than that used in infusion mashing The 5­10 °C increased gelatinization temp means the starch will be relatively insoluble, and enzymes will not adequately convert Solve problem by using separate cooker form mash tun Add cooked adjunct back to mash tun Can add enzymes directly Cereal Adjuncts Cereal Mainly corn and rice, although sorghum, barley and wheat are sometimes used Grits are uncooked fragments of starchy endosperm Starch must be gelatinized first Flakes are steam cooked then rolled flat Some gelatinization occurs before flaking Can be added directly to mash tun Cereal Adjuncts Cereal Torrified cereals Heating and popping grain, gelatinizes starch Most of nitrogen is denatured and becomes insoluble Can add directly to mash tun or cook separately Important that the grains are not ground too finely or poor lautering will result may need more water for hydration MICRONIZED CEREALS Heat grain with infra red Grain becomes soft with gelatinized starch REFINED STARCH Refined wheat, potato, corn Corn starch used to make syrups Wheat starch in cheaper in CND and AUS Can get static explosions Complete conversion, no run off problems Corn Corn Traditionally the adjunct of choice Consistent composition, quality, etc Sweet smooth flavor compatible with beer Corn use lightens color, lowers risk of chill haze, may stabilize flavor Corn Grits aka brewers grits increase runoff time, slightly lower extraction Corn Flakes have lower moisture and higher extract value than grits Corn starch is $$ but higher extract Rice Rice Second after corn No taste, promotes light color and clean taste Need separate cooking because gelatinization is up to 78 °C, compared to 74 °C for corn Short grain preferred, chipped broken (cheaper) work fine Rice grits are easier to handle Rice flakes pregelatinized, add to mash tun Barley Barley Unmalted barley provide smooth grainy taste Contributes to foam stability (proteins) but too much contributes to chill haze Essential in dry stout (Guinness) Can be used uo to 50% of grain bill but usually 10­15% Harsh taste, in complete β­glucan degradation (viscosity,lautering) probs. β­glucan rest 45­50 °C Flaked barley ­ dry grainy taste Wheat Wheat Unmalted wheat can improve head retention and palate fullness Gelatinization temp 52­64 °C Flavor changes Refined wheat starch similar to corn starch may require β­glucan rest 45­50 °C Wheat flour sometimes used Oats Oats High fat, protein, β­glucan Oatmeal stout popular, chill haze not a problem, glucans increase body and mouthfeel Sugar & Sugar Syrups Sugar British use sugars and sugar syrups to dilute protein Handling simplicity Added at boiling or at racking or even later at conditioning Syrups based on cane/beets or corn Corn syrup has range of mono, di and oligosaccharides Sugar & Sugar Syrups Sugar Dextrose Corn sugar, glucose Liquid syrup, powder, crystals May change flavor Cane/Beet sugars Sucrose, invertase converts to glucose and fructose Refined sucrose may give cidery taste, brown sugars may provide caramel­rum flavor to ales Sugar & Sugar Syrups Sugar Candy sugar is recrystallized sucrose Used in Belgiun for high gravity beers MALTODEXTRIN ­ may use in extract brews to increase dextrins, normally do this by increasing mash temp CARAMEL ­ Added for color Produced by dry heating of sucrose, develops melanoidin color and flavors ...
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