Lesson 4 1815-1860, Power Proj. and Tech. Revolution

Lesson 4 1815-1860, Power Proj. and Tech. Revolution - Sea...

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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 4: The United States Navy, 1815-1860: Power Projection and Technological Revolution
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Learning Objectives Comprehend the effectiveness of the U.S. Navy as an instrument of diplomacy. Know the state of naval technology and its evolution during this period. Know U.S. naval policy as a reflection of the period of 1815-1860. Comprehend the Wilkes and M. C. Perry expeditions and assess their importance to U.S maritime interests. Comprehend the lessons of the Mexican and Crimean Wars.
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Period of Expansion Monroe Doctrine -- 1823 No European colonization or intervention in the Americas. Manifest Destiny “Our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” » John L. O'Sullivan, 1845
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Anglo-American Friendship Monroe Doctrine sprung from British interest to prevent Holy Alliance (Prussia, Russia, Austria) from grabbing Spanish colonies Began to see eye-to-eye with erstwhile Mother Country Love, peace, and harmony…kind of
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Continuing Problems with Barbary States
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Barbary Wrap-Up Algerian Dey up to old tricks Madison sends Decatur back to Med after Treaty of Ghent - The settlement has “been dictated at the mouths of our cannon” Sets standard for US maritime pacts in 19th century The Golden Age of “Gunboat Diplomacy”
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Monroe’s “Gunboat Diplomacy” Increase in Size Anglo-American Cooperation Monroe Doctrine (1823) Squadron Deployment From periodic scourge to worldwide policeman Monroe’s Navy needed a few frigates backed by a score of 18-gun sloops, 12-gun brigs, and 8- gun schooners
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Board of Commissioners Secretary of Navy William Jones overwhelmed with paperwork during War of 1812 Asked Congress to establish three officer “advisory board” Congress does so in 1815 John Rodgers Isaac Hull David Porter
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Naval Warfighting Doctrine Primary mission of the Navy = “Gunboat Diplomacy”. Protect U. S. commercial interests overseas - “Showing the flag.” Overall Doctrine Focus on Commerce Raiding - “Guerre de Course ”. Command of the sea -- de-emphasized. Coastal defense - Army forts constructed at entrances to ports.
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Initial Squadrons (1826) Secretary of the Navy: Smith Thompson Mediterannean: Columbus, Barbary powers Pacific: Constellation , Protection of trade and whale fisheries India: Congress West Indies: Enterprise and two schooners Africa to WI, slave traders
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Permanent U.S. Navy Squadrons
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Permanent Squadrons Home Squadron Atlantic coast. Mediterranean Squadron Barbary states’ tribute demands. West Indies Squadron
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Lesson 4 1815-1860, Power Proj. and Tech. Revolution - Sea...

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