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BI+107+Chapter+2 - – Ionic bond • A bond between 2...

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Chapter 2 - Chemistry
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Forms of matter Element Pure substance Smallest unit is an atom Examples: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon etc. Compound Combination of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio Smallest unit is a molecule Examples: water (H 2 O), salt (NaCl), sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
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Composition of an Atom Protons Electrons Neutrons
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Bonds Strong bonds Covalent – sharing pairs of electrons 1 pair equals a single bond, 2 pairs shared with the same atom equals a double bond and 3 pairs shared with the same atom equals a triple bond For non-metals count the boxes to the right of the element to figure out the number of bonds it is likely to make. Can be equal sharing – non-polar covalent bond Can be unequal sharing – polar covalent bond
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Bonds Strong bonds – continued
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Unformatted text preview: – Ionic bond • A bond between 2 oppositely charged atoms or molecules. • Stable when solid or liquid but can be disrupted by water relatively easily • For metals count how many boxes to the left (including the element itself) to see how many electrons it is likely to lose. Bonds • Weak bonds – Hydrogen bond • Between a hydrogen in one molecule and a oxygen or nitrogen in another. Atoms must be involved in a polar covalent bond to be able to make hydrogen bonds. – Van der Waals interactions • Non-polar interactions • Extremely weak and short lasting Molecular shape • Various atoms have distinct shapes and form bonds at specific angles, these shapes are very important in biology....
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