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BI+107+Chapter+5 - Chapter 5 Structure and function of...

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Chapter 5 Structure and function of macromolecules in the cell
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Polymers Composed of monomers Synthesis – dehydration reaction, water is removed to make a covalent bond between the 2 monomers Breakdown – hydrolysis reaction, water is added to break a covalent bond in a polymer. Dehydration and hydrolysis reactions are the reverse of each other.
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Fig. 5-2a Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 (a)
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Fig. 5-2b Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 (b)
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Carbohydrates What is the monomer unit What is the function of the polymer?
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Fig. 5-5 (b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose Glucose Fructose Sucrose Maltose Glucose Glucose (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose 1–4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage
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Fig. 5-6 (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide Starch Glycogen Amylose Chloroplast (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide Amylopectin Mitochondria Glycogen granules 0.5 µm 1 µm
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Fig. 5-7 (a) α and β glucose ring structures α Glucose β Glucose b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of α glucose monomers (b) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of β glucose monomers
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Lipids Fats (triglycerides) What is(are) the monomer unit(s)? What is the function of the polymer?
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Fig. 5-11a Fatty acid (palmitic acid) (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a fat Glycerol
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Fig. 5-11b (b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol) Ester linkage
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Fig. 5-12
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