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BI+107+Chapter+9 - Chapter 9 Cell Respiration...

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Chapter 9 Cell Respiration
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Oxidation-Reduction reactions Reduction = gaining electrons Also can be tracked by addition of H+’s Oxidation = losing electrons Also can be tracked by loss of H + ’s If one molecule is being reduced another must be oxidized. This is really a transfer of electrons.
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Oxidation-Reduction reactions NAD + + 2e - + 1H + ↔ NADH FAD + 2e - + 2H + ↔ FADH 2 During oxidative phosphorylation these electrons will be exchanged for ATP. NADH = 3ATP • FADH 2 = 2 ATP
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Chemical bonds Energy is stored in chemical bonds. Oxygen in H 2 O has “a larger share” of the electrons then the oxygen in O 2 . The oxygen has been reduced in going from O 2 to H 2 O Sugar, C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 combine to form CO 2 and H 2 O (the lowest energy molecules of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, seen normally)
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Fig. 9-3 Reactants becomes oxidized becomes reduced Products Methane (reducing agent) Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide Water
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Types of phosphorylation Substrate level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation When and where are each of these seen in the cell? Which reactions require oxygen to be present?
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Fig. 9-7 Enzyme ADP P Substrate Enzyme ATP + Product
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Cell Respiration 3 major parts Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm Kreb’s cycle (citric acid cycle) takes place in the mitochondria Electron transport and chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation) Takes place in the mitochondria
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Fig. 9-6-3 Mitochondrion Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP Cytosol Glucose Pyruvate Glycolysis Electrons carried via NADH Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP Electrons carried
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