annurev.biophys.32.110601

annurev.biophys.32.110601 - Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol....

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Unformatted text preview: Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 2004. 33:26995 doi: 10.1146/annurev.biophys.32.110601.141803 Copyright c 2004 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on February 2, 2004 M ODEL S YSTEMS , L IPID R AFTS , AND C ELL M EMBRANES 1 Kai Simons Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany; email: simons@mpi-cbg.de Winchil L.C. Vaz Departamento de Qu mica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal; email: wvaz@qui.uc.pt Key Words sphingolipids, cholesterol, phase immiscibility, detergent resistance, membrane proteins Abstract Views of how cell membranes are organized are presently changing. The lipid bilayer that constitutes these membranes is no longer understood to be a homogeneous fluid. Instead, lipid assemblies, termed rafts, have been introduced to provide fluid platforms that segregate membrane components and dynamically com- partmentalize membranes. These assemblies are thought to be composed mainly of sphingolipids and cholesterol in the outer leaflet, somehow connected to domains of unknown composition in the inner leaflet. Specific classes of proteins are associated with the rafts. This review critically analyzes what is known of phase behavior and liquid-liquid immiscibility in model systems and compares these data with what is known of domain formation in cell membranes. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM MODEL SYSTEMS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 HOW DOES CHOLESTEROL INTERACT WITH NEIGHBORING PHOSPHOLIPIDS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 1 Abbreviations: AFM, atomic force microscopy; DOPC, 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine; DPPC, 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; DPPE, 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethano- lamine; ESR, electron spin resonance; F-DOPE, N-fluoresceincarboxamido-1,2-dioleoyl- phosphatidylcholine; F-DPPE, N-fluoresceincarboxamido-1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl- choline; FRET, fluorescence resonance energy transfer; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; PC, phosphatidylcholine; SpM, sphingomyelin; POPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- phosphatidylcholine. 1056-8700/04/0609-0269$14.00 269 A n n u . R e v . B i o p h y s . B i o m o l . S t r u c t . 2 4 . 3 3 : 2 6 9- 2 9 5 . D o w n l o a d e d f r o m a r j o u r n a l s . a n n u a l r e v i e w s . o r g b y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A o n 1 / 5 / 6 . F o r p e r s o n a l u s e o n l y . 270 SIMONS VAZ HOW DO THE MODEL MEMBRANE STUDIES RELATE TO CELL MEMBRANES? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 PROTEIN INTERACTIONS WITH LIPID RAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 WHAT DOES DETERGENT RESISTANCE TELL US ABOUT LIPID DOMAINS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course CHM 6304 taught by Professor Richards during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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annurev.biophys.32.110601 - Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol....

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