psych 230 study exam 2

psych 230 study exam 2 - Psych 230 Study Guide for Exam II...

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Psych 230 Study Guide for Exam II 1. Perceptual Development Perception is the organization and interpretation of sensed energy into meaningful forms a. Describe the methods used to study perception in infants. What do these methods tell us? Preference Method- two objects are presented simultaneously and we record how long infant attends to each one Habituation Method- a stimulus becomes so familiar or boring that infant stops showing any response to it Evoked Potentials- present with a stimulus and record brain waves These studies tell us that infants can discriminate and show perforation b. What kinds of patterns can newborns see? When can they see patterns like adults? Infants aged 2 months and older can discriminate patterns similar to adults- even highly complex ones. Newborns can see an prefer high contrast to moderately complex patterns, and curvilinear rather than linear patterns c. What preferences for smell and taste do infants have? Be able to tell by examples what an infant may perceive with smell and taste. Newborns prefer sweet food flavorings to stronger smells like fish or eggs. Newborns orient toward breast odor and can tell the difference between his mothers milk and other lactating women’s milk. d. What are the reactions at different ages to the visual cliff? Why do babies react differently at different ages? Gibson found that infants could avoid deep side shortly after they started to crawl, he also learned that babies could see and understand depth without learning. Pre locomotive infants show decrease in heart rate on the deep side of the visual cliff, this suggests interest not fear. e. What is the primary characteristic of perceptual development in childhood and adolescence, as discussed in class? Information processing is less perceptually dominated as we get older, for an example learning to control attention by focusing attention and being less distractible, we gradually get better at ignoring irrelevant details in our environment. f. What did the Cat in the Hat study suggest about auditory perception in infants, as discussed in class? DeCasper and Fifer found that babies recognize their mothers voice in the first three days of life, moms read aloud cat in the hat many times in last trimester, after birth babies sucked more to hear the cat in the hat than a different one. Study group was small. g. How does perceptual development change as we get older in all domains? Information processing is less perceptually dominated as we get older. 2. Cognitive Development The development of our ability to reason, solve problems, to understand our world, and to understand abstract concepts/ideas. a. Be able to define and apply all the terms used in Piagetian Theory (e.g. assimilation, scheme, etc). Assimilation- we take in data from the environment and fit it into our theories about the
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psych 230 study exam 2 - Psych 230 Study Guide for Exam II...

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