9-04-08 - Pentose Phosphate Pathway Hexose monophosphate...

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ATP is the cell’s “energy” BUT Cells also have….REDUCING POWER! Processes (such as photosynthesis) require NADPH as well as ATP NADH and NADPH are NOT interchangable Pentose Phosphate Pathway Hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt / Phosphogluconate pathway.
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NADH and NADPH are NOT interchangable NADP + + 2H ---> NADPH + H + [NAD+] ~ 1000 [NADP+] ~ 0.01 [NADH] [NADPH]
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1C5 to 1C5 2C5 to 2C5 2C5 to 1C7 + 1C3 3C6 3C5 3C1 1C7 + 1C3 to 1C6 + 1C4 1C4 + 1C5 to 1C6 + 1C3
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C O OH OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- O C O OH OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- O H H B N + O NH 2 R N O NH 2 R
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C O OH OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- O H O H B H A C OH OH OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- O OH
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- O O OH H O OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H O C O OH H O - OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H H CH 2 OH O OH OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H A
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Summary of carbon skeleton rearrangements in the pentose phosphate pathway. 3C 6 ---> 3C 5 + 3C 1 2 3 2
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3 ribulose-5-P ---> 2 xylulose-5-P + 1 ribose-5-P CH 2 OH O H OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H O H OH OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H CH 2 OH O HO OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H
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O H OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H H OH OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H H OH B OH H OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H O H A H B H A O H OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H H OH B O - OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H H OH HO H A O HO OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H H H OH
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Transketolase: catalyzes the transfer of C2 units
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CH 2 OH O HO OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H S - N + H 3 C R R CH 2 OH OH O OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H H A S N + H 3 C R R H B CH 2 OH OH O OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H S N H 3 C R R CH 2 OH OH S C N H 3 C R R H O H OH OH H H A CH 2 OH O S N + H 3 C R R H OH OH H HO H H B CH 2 OH O H OH OH H HO H S C - N + X R R CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H OH H C 3 C 7 CH 3
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Transaldolase: catalyzes the transfer of C3 units
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CH 2 OH O H OH OH H HO H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H + H 3 N Enzyme Schiff Base Formation CH 2 OH H O OH H HO H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H N H + Enzyme H B CH 2 OH H O OH H HO H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H N Enzyme O H CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H A CH 2 OH HO H N H + Enzyme OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H Schiff Base Hydrolysis CH 2 OH HO H O OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- OH H H C 7 C 4 C 6 C 3
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CH 2 OH O HO OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H S - N + H 3 C R R CH 2 OH OH O OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H H A S N + H 3 C R R H B CH 2 OH OH O OH CH 2 OPO 3 2- H H S N H 3 C R R CH 2 OH OH S N H 3 C R R H O H OH OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- H A CH 2 OH O S N + H 3 C R R H OH OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- HO H H B CH 2 OH O H OH OH H CH 2 OPO 3 2- HO H S - N + H 3 C R R C 5 C 3 C 4 C 6
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Summary of the pentose phosphate pathway 3G6P + 6NADP + + 3H 2 O 6NADPH + 6H + + 3CO 2 + 2F6P + GAP
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9-04-08 - Pentose Phosphate Pathway Hexose monophosphate...

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